Gas Phase And Electrocatalytic Reaction Over Pt, Pd Ions Substituted CeO2, TiO2 Catalysts and Electronic Interaction Between Noble Metal Ions And The Reducible Oxide
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Among the various heterogeneous catalytic reactions three way catalysis (TWC), catalytic combustion of hydrogen, water gas shift reaction (WGS) and preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) in the hydrogen rich stream are some of the important reactions receiving the attention presently. Three-way catalysis (TWC) involves simultaneous removal of the three pollutants (i.e., CO, NOx, and HCs) from the automobile exhaust. Catalytic combustion of hydrogen by oxygen or hydrogen-oxygen recombination reaction is an industrially important reaction. It has variety of application such as in sealed lead acid batteries and nuclear reactors. Water gas shift (WGS) reaction is of specific importance to produce hydrogen from carbonaceous material. PROX is an important step to further purify hydrogen produced form WGS. Hydrogen purified using PROX can be directly fed to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. By and large, noble metals Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and some of their alloys are dispersed on oxide or high surface area carbon are the active catalysts. An alternative approach can be to make Pt2+, Pd2+, Rh3+, Ru4+ ions substituted in reducible support such as CeO2, Ce1-xTixO2-δ and TiO2 to increase the dispersion and bring down the cost. In this thesis we have followed this new approach and show that noble metal ionic catalysts are superior to noble metal nano particles. In the 1st chapter we present an overview of heterogeneous catalysis and important heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Monolithic catalyst and various ways to coat catalysts for application have been reviewed. Metal-support interaction till date is also reviewed. In the 2nd chapter, synthesis of noble metal ionic catalysts by solution combustion method is described. Coating of washcoat and active catalyst phase over ceramic honeycomb by a new combustion method is described. Solution combustion reaction and characterization of the catalyst by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction and reaction is given. We have fabricated experimental systems to carryout catalytic reaction and in this chapter they have been presented. In the 3rd chapter, we report a new process of coating of active exhaust catalyst over -Al2O3 coated cordierite honeycomb. The process consists of (a) growing -Al2O3 on cordierite by solution combustion of Al(NO3)3 and oxylyldihydrazide (ODH) at 600 0C. Active catalyst phase, Ce0.98Pd0.02O2- is coated on - Al2O3 coated cordierite again by combustion of ceric ammonium nitrate and ODH with 1.2 10-3 M PdCl2 solution at 500 0C. In this way a coat layer over cordierite ceramic has been achieved and catalyst has the active sites in the form of Pd2+ ions rather than Pd metal. Weight of the active catalyst can be varied from 0.02 to 2 wt% which is sufficient but can be loaded even up to 12 wt% by repeating dip dry combustion . Adhesion of catalyst to cordierite surface is via oxide growth on oxide ceramic which is very strong. 100 % conversion of CO is achieved below 80 oC at a space velocity of 880 h-1. At much higher space velocity of 21000h-1, 100 % conversion is obtained below 245 oC. Activation energy for CO oxidation is 8.4 kcal/mol. At a space velocity of 880 h-1 100% NO conversion is attained below 185 oC and 100 % conversion of ‘HC’(C2H2) below 220 oC. At the same space velocity 3-way catalytic performance over Ce0.98Pd0.02O2- coated monolith shows 100% conversion of all the pollutants below 220 o C with 15% excess oxygen. Catalytic activity of cordierite honeycomb coated by this new coating method for the oxidation of major hydrocarbons in exhaust gas is discussed further in this chapter. ‘HC’ oxidation over the monolith catalyst is carried out with a mixture having the composition, 470 ppm of both propene and propane and 870 ppm of both ethylene and acetylene with the varying amount of O2. 3-way catalytic test is done by putting hydrocarbon mixture along with CO (10000ppm), NO (2000ppm) and O2 (15000ppm). Below 350 oC full conversion is achieved . A comparison of the results shows that Ce1-xPdxO2-δ far superior to other catalysts. In this method, handling of nano material powder is avoided. In the 4th chapter we present a detailed study on the catalytic combustion of hydrogen by oxygen (hydrogen oxygen recombination reaction). Ever since Michel Faraday showed H2 + O2 recombination reaction over platinum metal plates, Pt metal has remained the only room temperature recombination catalyst. In search of an alternative catalyst, we discovered a new Pt free Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- compound which shows high rates of this reaction above 45 oC compared to Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-, Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3. High rates of H2+O2 recombination over Pt and Pd ion respectively in CeO2 and TiO2 is due to the protonic type H2+ adsorption on Pt2+ or Pd2+ and dissociative chemisorption of O2 on the electron rich oxide ion vacancies . In the case of Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-, H2/Pt ratio in a TPR experiment is ~2.3 at 0 oC. In the case of Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- also, H2 adsorption occurs below 0 oC and H2 / Pd ratio is ~2.2. Thus, more than 4-5 H atoms are adsorbed per metal ion. This is attributed to hydrogen spillover. H2 is known to be adsorbed as hydride ion (H-) over Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Os and Ir metals. Proton NMR studies of H2 adsorbed on Pd metal have shown upfield i.e. negative shift of 12 ppm with respect to TMS. We have studied proton NMR of Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- + H2 which show a downfield shift of 11.35 ppm confirming H+ or H2+ kind of species over Pd2+ ion in Ti0.99Pd0.01O2-. In Ce0.98Pt0.02O2- also H2 adsorption led to H2+ like species observed at 8 ppm and DFT calculations indeed showed H2+ kind species. H2+ is a precursor for dissociation and can readily induce O2 dissociation leading to high rates of recombination. In the 5th chapter we report water gas shift reaction (WGS) and preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) over Ti0.99Pt0.01O2-, Ce0.83Ti0.15Pt0.02O2- and Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-δ. The water gas shift reaction (WGS) is an important reaction to produce hydrogen. In this study, we have synthesized nano crystalline catalysts where Pt ion is substituted in the +2 state in TiO2, CeO2 and Ce1-xTixO2-δ. The catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it has been shown that Pt2+ ions in these reducible oxides of the form Ti0.99Pt0.01O2-, Ce0.83Ti0.15Pt0.02O2- and Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-δ are highly active. These catalysts were tested for the water gas shift reaction both in presence and absence of hydrogen. It is shown that Ti0.99Pt0.01O2- exhibits higher catalytic activity than Ce0.83Ti0.15Pt0.02O2- and Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-δ . Further, experiments were conducted to determine the deactivation of these catalysts by performing the daily startup and shutdown of the reactor for over 24 hours. There was no sintering of Pt and no carbonate formation and, therefore, the catalyst did not deactivate even after prolonged reaction. There was no carbonate formation because of the highly acidic nature of Ce4+, Ti4+ ions in the catalysts. Further, PROX activity of these catalysts has been studied. Ce0.83Ti0.15Pt0.02O2- and Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-δ showed high activity, large operating temperature window and low working temperature proving them to be highly effective PROX catalysts. In the 6th chapter we study the electrocatalysis of formic acid electro-oxidation and simultaneously mapping the electronic states of the electrodes by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ionically dispersed platinum in Ce1-xPtxO2-δ and Ce1-x-yTiyPtxO2-δ is very active towards oxygen evolution and formic acid oxidation. Higher electro-catalytic activity of Pt2+ ions in CeO2 and Ce1-xTixO2 compared to Pt0 in Pt/C is due to Pt2+ ion interaction with the supports, CeO2 and Ce1-xTixO2 respectively . Further, ionic platinum does not suffer from CO poisoning effect unlike Pt0 in Pt/C. Utilization of lattice oxygen from the electrodes during the reaction has been demonstrated. This lattice oxygen exchange is responsible to convert CO to CO2 in the lower potential region to remove CO poisoning effect. In 7th chapter we repeat our study on the noble metal ion reducible oxide interaction in Ce1-xPtxO2- and Ce1-xPdxO2- (x= 0.02) system by a novel electrochemical method combined with XPS. Working electrodes made of CeO2 and Ce0.98Pt0.02O2- mixed with 30% carbon are cycled between 0.0-1.2 V in potentio-static (chronoamperometry) and potentio-dynamic (cyclic voltametry) mode with reference to saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Reversible oxidation of Pt0 to Pt2+ and Pt4+ state due to the applied positive potential is coupled to simultaneous reversible reduction of Ce4+ to Ce3+ state. CeO2 reduces to CeO2-y (y= 0.35) after applying +1.2 V which is not reversible. But Ce0.98Pt0.02O2- reaches a steady state with Pt2+: Pt4+ in the ratio of 0.60: 0.40 and Ce4+: Ce3+ in the ratio of 0.55: 0.45 giving a composition Ce0.98Pt0.02O1.74 at 1.2 V which is reversible . Composition of Pt ion substituted compound is reversible between Ce0.98Pt0.02O1.95 to Ce0.98Pt0.02O1.74 within the potential range of 0.0-1.2 V. Thus, Ce0.98Pt0.02O2- forms a stable electrode for oxidation of H2O to O2 unlike CeO2. A linear relation between oxidation of Pt2+ to Pt4+ with simultaneous reduction of Ce4+ to Ce3+ is observed demonstrating Pt-CeO2 metal support interaction is due to reversible Pt0/Pt2+/Pt4+ interaction with Ce4+/Ce3+ redox couple. Similar studies have been performed with Ce0.98Pd0.02O2- catalyst to show the redox coupling between Pd2+/Pd0 and Ce4+/Ce3+ redox couples. We expect similar redox coupling for Pd, Pt ions substituted TiO2, and Ce1-xTixO2. In the final chapter 8, a critical review and conclusion on the results presented in the thesis is presented. The combustion synthesized catalysts reported in this thesis stabilizes the Pt and Pd metals in their ionic state rather than zero valent metallic state. Thus, the catalysts are uniform solid catalysts. High activity and stability of these catalysts are shown to be due to the electronic interaction between noble metal ions and the reducible oxide. Redox couples Pt0/Pt2+, Pt2+/Pt4+ and Pd0/Pd2+ interact with Ce4+/Ce3+, Ti4+/Ti3+ couples such that metal is oxidized and the support is reduced. This has been established in the thesis by a combined use of electrochemistry and XPS thus solving a long standing problem of metal support interaction in catalysis. We hope that the results presented in the thesis is a worthwhile contribution to catalysis. (For mathematical equations pl refer pdf file.)
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