Noble Metal And Base Metal Ion Substituted Ceo2 And Tio2 : Efficient Catalysts For Nox Abatement
In recent times, as regulations and legislations for exhaust treatment have become more stringent, a major concern in the arena of environmental catalysis is to find new efficient and economical exhaust treatment catalysts. Chapter 1 is a review of the current status of various NOx abatement techniques and understanding the role of “auto-exhaust catalysts” involved therein. Chapter 2 presents the studies on synthesis of ionically substituted precious metal ions like Pd2+, Pt2+ and Rh3+ in CeO2 matrix and their comparative three-way catalytic performances for NO reduction by CO, as well as CO and hydrocarbon oxidation. Ce0.98Pd0.02O2- showed better catalytic activity than ionically dispersed Pt or Rh in CeO2. The study in Chapter 3 aims at synthesizing 1 atom% Pd2+ ion in TiO2 in the form of Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- with oxide ion vacancy. A bi-functional reaction mechanism for CO oxidation by O2 and NO reduction by CO was proposed. For NO reduction in presence of CO, the model based on competitive adsorption of NO and CO on Pd2+, NO chemisorption and dissociation on oxide ion vacancy fits the experimental data. The rate parameters obtained from the model indicates that the reactions are much faster over this catalyst compared to other catalysts reported in the literature. In Chapter 4 we present catalytic reduction of NO by H2 over precious metal substituted TiO2 (Ti0.99M0.01O2-, where M = Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt) catalysts. The rate of NO reduction by H2 depends on the reducibility of the catalysts. Chapter 5 presents the studies on reduction of NO by NH3 in presence of excess oxygen. 10 atom % of first row transition metal ions (Ti0.9M0.1O2-, where M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) were substituted in anatase TiO2 and TPD study showed that the Lewis and Bronsted acid sites are adsorption sites for NH3, whereas NO is found to dissociatively chemisorbed in oxide ion vacancies. The mechanism of the low temperature catalytic activity of the SCR and the selectivity of the products were studied to understand the mechanism by studying the by-reactions like ammonia oxidation by oxygen. A new catalyst Ti0.9Mn0.05Fe0.05O2- has shown low temperature activity with a broad SCR window from 200 to 400 °C and more selectivity than commercial vanadium-oxides catalysts. We attempted NO dissociation by a photochemical route with remarkable success. In Chapter 6 we report room temperature photocatalytic activity of Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- for NO reduction and CO oxidation by creating redox adsorption sites and utilizing oxide ion vacancy in the catalyst. The reduction of NO is carried out both in the presence and in the absence of CO. Despite competitive adsorption of NO and CO on the Pd2+ sites, the rate of reduction of NO is two orders of magnitude higher than unsubstituted TiO2. High rates of photo-oxidation of CO with O2 over Ti0.99Pd0.01O2- were observed at room temperature. In Chapter 7 the results are summarized and critical issues are addressed. Novel idea in this thesis was to see if both noble metal ions and base metal ions substituted in TiO2 and CeO2 reducible supports can act as better active sites than the corresponding metal atoms in their zero valent state.