Stress Response In Salmonella And Its Role In Pathogenesis
Chapter: 1 Introduction Genus Salmonella is a Gram-negative rod shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria that can survive inside the host macrophages and cause persistent infection. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Enteritidis are the serovars, which belong to the Salmonella enterica species. S. Typhi causes typhoid fever in humans. S. Typhimurium is one of the important causes for food poisoning in humans. It causes typhoid like fever in mice and serves as a good model system to study Salmonella pathogenesis. Salmonella infection occurs via the orofecal route following which it invades the intestinal mucosa through several ways, namely by antigen sampling M cells, CD18+ macrophages present in the intestinal lumen or via a forced entry in the non phagocytic enterocytes. Upon entry Salmonella resides in an intracellular phagosomal compartment called the Salmonella containing vacuole (SCV). The SCV only transiently acquires endocytic markers like TfnR, EEA1, Rab4, Rab5, Rab11 and Rab7. It eventually uncouples from the endocytic pathway to avoid lysosomal fusion and ultimately reaches the golgi apparatus achieving a perinuclear position. The mechanisms by which phagocytes kill the virulent Salmonella are not completely understood, however the role of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) phagocytic oxidase system has been strongly implicated. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs via a membrane-bound flavocytochrome b558, consisting of two phagocytic oxidase components (gp91phox and p22phox) and four cytosolic components, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox, and a GTP-binding Rac protein. Further, professional phagocytes like macrophages generate nitric oxide (NO) that acts as a potent agent to limit the growth of many intracellular pathogens including Salmonella. Chapter:2 Resistance to host Nitrosative stress in Salmonella by quenching L-arginine. Arginine is a common substrate for both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase. The competition between iNOS and arginase for arginine contributes to the outcome of several parasitic and bacterial infections. Salmonella infection in macrophage cell line RAW264.7 induces iNOS. Because the availability of L-arginine is a major determinant for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, we hypothesize that in the Salmonella infected macrophages NO production may be regulated by arginase. Here we report for the first time that Salmonella up-regulates arginase II but not arginase I isoform in RAW264.7 macrophages. Blocking arginase increases the substrate L-arginine availability to iNOS for production of more nitric oxide and perhaps peroxynitrite molecules in the infected cells allowing better killing of virulent Salmonella in a NO dependent manner. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine reverts the attenuation in arginase blocked condition. Further, the NO block created by Salmonella was removed by increasing concentration of L-arginine. In the whole-mice system arginase I, although constitutive, is much more abundant than the inducible arginase II isoform. Inhibition of arginase activity in mice during the course of Salmonella infection reduces the bacterial burden and delays the disease outcome in a NO dependent manner. Chapter:3 Hrg (hydrogen peroxide resistant gene), a LysR type transcriptional regulator confers resistance to oxidative stress in Salmonella LysR type transcriptional regulators are one of the key players that help bacteria adapt to different environments. We have christened STM0952, a putative LysR type transcriptional regulator in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as the hydrogen peroxide resistance gene (hrg). By generating a knock out of the hrg gene, we demonstrate that the hrg mutant serovar Typhimurium is sensitive to oxidative products of the respiratory burst, specifically to hydrogen peroxide. The hrg mutant is profoundly attenuated in the murine model of infection and shows decreased intracellular proliferation in macrophages. It was also found to induce increased amount of reactive oxygen species and co-localization with gp91phox in the macrophage cell line, when compared to the wild type. An overproducing strain of this gene showed a survival advantage over the wild type Salmonella under hydrogen peroxide induced stress condition. Microarray analysis suggested the presence of a Hrg regulon, which is required for resistance to the toxic oxidative products of the reticulo-endothelial system. Chapter:4 Importance of the host oxidative stress in antigen presentation and its modulation by Salmonella: Role of TLR Synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxynucleotide TLR-9 agonist (CpG ODN) activates innate immunity and can stimulate antigen presentation against numerous intracellular pathogens. We report that Salmonella Typhimurium growth can be inhibited by the CpG ODN treatment in the murine dendritic cells. This inhibitory effect was shown to be mediated by an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We further show that the CpG ODN treatment of the dendritic cells during Salmonella infection leads to a ROS dependent increased antigen presentation. In addition, TLR-9 signaling inhibitor was able to inhibit the CpG ODN mediated increased antigen presentation, ROS production and pathogen killing. These data indicate that CpG ODN can improve the ability of the murine dendritic cells to contain the growth of the virulent Salmonella through ROS dependent killing and could as well be used as an effective adjuvant in vaccines against Salmonella infection.
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Sandeepa, M E (2010-08-25)The genus Salmonella includes facultative intracellular pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever in humans killing about 2,00,000 people globally every year. Salmonella enterica serovars ...
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