|Chalcogenide glasses are a class of covalent amorphous semiconductors with interesting properties. The presence of short-range order and the pinned Fermi level are the two important properties that make them suitable for many applications. With flash memory technology reaching the scaling limit as per Moore’s law, alternate materials and techniques are being researched at for realizing next generation non-volatile memories. Two such possibilities that are being looked at are Phase Change Memory (PCM) and Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) both of which make use of chalcogenide materials.
This thesis starts with a survey of the work done so far in realizing PCMs in reality. For chalcogenides to be used as a main memory or as a replacement to FLASH technology, the electrical switching parameters like switching voltage, programming current, ON state and OFF state resistances, switching time and optical parameters like band gap are to be considered. A survey on the work done in this regard has revealed that various parameters such as chemical composition of the PC material, nature of additives used to enhance the performance of PCM, topological thresholds (Rigidity Percolation Threshold and Chemical Threshold), device geometry, thickness of the active volume, etc., influence the electrical switching parameters. This has motivated to further investigate the material and experimental parameters that affect switching and also to explore the possibility of multi level switching.
In this thesis work, the feasibility of using two chalcogenide systems namely Si15Te85-xGex and Ge15Te85-xAgx in the form of amorphous thin films for PCM application is explored. In the process, electrical switching experiments have been carried out on thin films belonging to these systems and the results obtained are found to exhibit some interesting anomalies. Further experiments and analysis have been carried out to understand these anomalies. Finally, the dynamics of electrical switching has been investigated and presented for amorphous Si15Te85-xGex thin films. From these studies, it is also seen that multi state switching/multiple resistance levels of the material can be achieved by current controlled switching, the mechanisms of which have been further probed using XRD analysis and AFM studies. In addition, investigations have been carried out on the electrical switching behavior of amorphous Ge15Te85-xAgx thin film devices and optical band gap studies on amorphous Ge15Te85-xAgx thin films.
Chapter one of the thesis, gives a brief introduction to the limitations in existing memory technology and the alternative memory technologies that are being researched, based on which it can be inferred that PCM is a promising candidate for the next generation non volatile memory. This chapter also discusses the principle of using PCM to store data, realization of PCM using chalcogenides, the material properties to be considered in designing PCM, the trade offs in the process of design and the current trends in PCM technology.
Chapter two provides a brief review of the electrical switching phenomenon observed in various bulk chalcogenide glasses, as electrical switching is the underlying principle behind the working of a PCM. In the process of designing a memory, many parameters like read/write operation speed, data retentivity and life, etc., have to be optimized for which a thorough understanding on the dependence of electrical switching mechanism on various material parameters is essential. In this chapter, the dependence of electrical switching on parameters like network topological thresholds and electrical and thermal properties of the material is discussed. Doping is an efficient way of controlling the electrical parameters of chalcogenides. The nature of dopant also influences switching parameters and this also is briefly discussed.
Chapter three provides a brief introduction to the different experimental techniques used for the thesis work such as bulk chalcogenide glass preparation, preparation of thin amorphous films, measurement of film thickness, confirmation of amorphous nature of the films using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), electrical switching experiments using a custom made setup, crystallization study using XRD and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical band gap studies using UV-Vis spectrometer.
Vt is an important parameter in the design of a PCM. Chapter four discusses the dependence of Switching voltage, Vt, on input energy. It is already established that the Vt is influenced by the composition of the base glass, nature of dopants, thickness of films and by the ambient temperature. Based on the results of electrical switching experiments in Si15Te74Ge11 amorphous thin films a comprehensive analysis has been done to understand the kinetics of electrical switching.
Chapter five discusses a current controlled crystallization technique that can be used to realize multi-bit storage with a single layer of chalcogenide material. In case of PCM, data is stored as structural information; the memory cell in the amorphous state is read as data ‘0’ and the memory cell in crystalline state is read as data ‘1’. This is accomplished through the process of electrical switching. In order to increase the memory density or storage density, multi-bit storage is being probed at by having multiple layers of chalcogenide material. However, with this technique, the problems of inter-diffusion between different layers cannot be ruled out. In this thesis work, a current controlled crystallization technique has been used to achieve multiple stable resistance states in Si15Te75Ge10 thin films.
Chapter six discusses the mechanism behind multi state switching exhibited by certain compositions of Si15Te85-xGex thin films. Crystallization studies on certain Si15Te85-xGex films have been carried out using XRD and AFM to understand the phenomenon of multiple states. The results of these experiments and analysis are presented in this chapter.
Chapter seven discusses the results of electrical switching experiments and optical band gap studies on amorphous Ge15Te85-xAgx thin films. Chapter eight gives the conclusion and scope for future work.