Integrated Approach To Filter Design For Grid Connected Power Converters
Design of filters used in grid-connected inverter applications involves multiple constraints. The filter requirements are driven by tight filtering tolerances of standards such as IEEE 519-1992–IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems and IEEE 1547.2-2008–IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. Higher order LCL filters are essential to achieve these regulatory standard requirements at compact size and weight. This objective of this thesis report is to evaluate design procedures for such higher order LCL filters. The initial configuration of the third order LCL filter is decided by the frequency response of the filter. The design equations are developed in per-unit basis so results can be generalized for different applications and power levels. The frequency response is decided by IEEE specifications for high frequency current ripple at the point of common coupling. The appropriate values of L and C are then designed and constructed. Power loss in individual filter components is modeled by analytical equations and an iterative process is used to arrive at the most efficient design. Different combinations of magnetic materials (ferrite, amorphous, powder) and winding types (round wire, foil) are designed and tested to determine the most efficient design. The harmonic spectrum, power loss and temperature rise in individual filter components is predicted analytically and verified by actual tests using a 3 phase 10 kW grid connected converter setup. Experimental results of filtering characteristics show a good match with analysis in the frequency range of interconnected inverter applications. The design process is stream-lined for the above specified core and winding types. The output harmonic current spectrum is sampled and it is established that the harmonics are within the IEEE recommended limits. The analytical equations predicting the power loss and temperature rise are verified by experimental results. Based on the findings, new LCL filter combinations are formulated by varying the net Lpu to achieve the highest efficiency while still meeting the recommended IEEE specifications. Thus a design procedure which can enable an engineer to design the most efficient and compact filter that can also meet the recommended guidelines of harmonic filtering for grid-connected converter applications is established.
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