Studies On Application Of Control Systems For Urban Water Networks
Kumar, M Prasanna
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Management and supply of water in an urban water distribution system is a complex process, which include various complexities like pressure variations across the network depending on topography, demand variations depending on customers’ requirement and unaccounted water etc. Applying automatic control methods to water distribution systems is a way to improve the management of water distribution. There have been some attempts in recent years to develop optimal control algorithms to assist in the operation of complex water distribution systems. The difficulties involved by these hydraulic systems such as non-linearity, and diurnal demand patterns make the choice of a suitable automatic control method a challenge. For this purpose, this study intends to investigate the applicability of different controllers which would be able to meet the targets as quickly as possible and without creating undue transients. As a first step towards application of different controllers, PD and PID linear controllers have been designed for pump control and valve control in water distribution systems. Then a Dynamic Inversion based nonlinear controller has been designed by considering the non-linearities in the system. Here, different cases considering the effects of initial conditions used, linearization methods used, time step used for integration and selection of gains etc., have been studied before arriving at best controller. These controllers have been designed for both the flow control problems and level control problems. It is found that Dynamic Inversion-based nonlinear controller outperforms other controllers. It is well known that the performance of controllers is much dependent on the tuning of the gains (parameters). Thus in this study various alternative techniques such as Ziegler--Nichols rules (ZNPID), Genetic algorithms (GAPID) and fuzzy algorithms (FZPID) have been studied and a comparative study has been made Although with all the three gain tuning methods, required states have reached their target values, but the responses vary much in reaching to final targets. The self-tuned FZPID controller outperforms other two controllers, especially with regard to overshoots and the time taken to tune the gains for each problem. Further, an optimal DI controller is developed for the over determined case with more controls and less targets. Energy loss is considered as an objective function and normal DI controller equations are considered as constraints. Hence, an attempt is made to reduce the energy minimization in water distribution system by formulating an optimal control problem using optimal Dynamic Inversion concept. Finally, leakage reduction model is developed based on excessive pressure minimization problem by locating valves optimally as well as by setting valves optimally. For this purpose, optimization problem is solved using Pattern search algorithms and hydraulic analysis is carried out using EPANET program.
- Civil Engineering (CiE) 
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