Reliability Based Design Methods Of Pile Foundations Under Static And Seismic Loads
The properties of natural soil are inherently variable and influence design decisions in geotechnical engineering. Apart from the inherent variability of the soil, the variability may arise due to measurement of soil properties in the field or laboratory tests and model errors. These wide ranges of variability in soil are expressed in terms of mean, variance and autocorrelation function using probability/reliability based models. The most common term used in reliability based design is the reliability index, which is a probabilistic measure of assurance of performance of structure. The main objective of the reliability based design is to quantify probability of failure/reliability of a geotechnical system considering variability in the design parameters and associated safety. In foundation design, reliability based design is useful compared to deterministic factor of safety approach. Several design codes of practice recommend the use of limit state design concept based on probabilistic models, and suggest that, development of reliability based design methodologies for practical use are of immense value. The objective of the present study is to propose reliability based design methodologies for pile foundations under static and seismic loads. The work presented in this dissertation is subdivided into two parts, namely design of pile foundations under static vertical and lateral loading; and design of piles under seismic loading, embedded in non-liquefiable and liquefiable soil. The significance of consideration of variability in soil parameters in the design of pile foundation is highlighted. A brief review of literature is presented in Chapter 2 on current pile design methods under vertical, lateral and seismic loads. It also identifies the scope of the work. Chapter 3 discusses the methods of analysis which are subsequently used for the present study. Chapter 4 presents the reliability based design methodology for vertically and laterally loaded piles based on cone penetration test data for cohesive soil. CPT data from Konaseema area in India is used for analysis. Ultimate limit sate and serviceability limit state are considered for reliability based design using CPT data and load displacement curves. Chapter 5 presents the load resistance factor design (LRFD) of vertically and laterally loaded piles based on load test data. Reliability based code calibrated partial factors are determined considering bias in failure criteria, model bias and variability in load and resistance. Chapter 6 illustrates a comprehensive study on the effect of soil spatial variability on response of vertically and laterally loaded pile foundations in undrained clay. Two-dimensional finite difference program, FLAC2D (Itasca 2005) is used to model the soil and pile. The response of pile foundations due to the effect of variance and spatial correlation of undrained shear strength is studied using Monte Carlo simulation. The influence of spatial variability on the propagation and formation of failure near the pile foundation is also examined. Chapter 7 describes reliability based design methodology of piles in non-liquefiable soil. The seismic load on pile foundation is determined from code specified elastic design response spectrum using pseudo-static approach. Variability in seismic load and soil undrained shear strength are incorporated. The effects of soil relative densities, pile diameters, earthquake predominant frequencies and peak acceleration values on the two plausible failure mechanisms; bending and buckling are examined in Chapter 8. The two-dimensional finite difference analysis is used for dynamic analysis. A probabilistic approach is proposed to identify governing failure modes of piles in liquefiable soil in Chapter 9. The variability in the soil parameters namely SPT-N value, friction angle, shear modulus, bulk modulus, permeability and shear strain at 50% of modulus ratio is considered. Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the probability of failure. A well documented case of the failed pile of Showa Bridge in 1964 Niigata earthquake is considered as case example. Based on the studies reported in this dissertation, it can be concluded that the reliability based design of pile foundations considering variability and spatial correlation of soil enables a rational choice of design loads. The variability in the seismic design load and soil shear strength can quantify the risk involved for pile design in a rational basis. The identification of depth of liquefiable soil layer is found to be most important to identify failure mechanisms of piles in liquefiable soil. Considerations of soil type, earthquake intensity, predominant frequency of earthquake, pile material, variability of soil are also significant.
- Civil Engineering (CiE)