Theoretical Investigations Of Structure, Energy And Properties Of A Few Inorganic Compounds
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This thesis reports the theoretical investigations aimed at understanding the structure, stability and properties of a few inorganic compounds. The first chapter presents an introductory overview of the theories used to solve the questions addressed in the thesis. A brief discussion of the work is also presented here. The second chapter deals with electron reservoirs which have been one of the basic motifs of single-electron device. Mononuclear vinylidene complexes of type Mn(C5H4R’)(R” 2 PCH2CH2PR "2)= C = C(R1)(H) were synthesized and reported [Venkatesan et al, Organometallics 25, 5190 (2006)] as potential electron reservoirs capable of storing and releasing electrons in a reversible fashion. These compounds have been of great interest because their red-ox chemistry (reversible oxidative coupling and reductive decoupling) is governed by the C - C bond. However slow oxidation of the mononuclear vinylidene complexes leads to undesired product. In our model compound Mn(C5H5)(PH3)2 = C = C(R1)(H), we substituted the cyclopentadienyl moiety by isolobal dianionic dicarbollyl ligand Dcab2- (C2B9H2-11 ). This simple substitution could reduce the production of undesired product. Calculations of vertical detachment energy, thermodynamic feasibility and molecular orbital analysis showed that this substitution was thermodynamically feasible and led to easy oxidation and dimerization of the parent compound accompanied with better reversibility of the reaction. The eﬀect of substituents (R = H,Me,Ph) on Cβ atom of our model system was also analyzed. The substituent on β carbon had a great eﬀect on the stability and reactivity of these complexes. Our comparative study between Mn(C5H5)(PH3)2 = C = C(R)(H) and Mn(Dcab)(PH3)2 = C = C(R)(H)−1 (where R = H,Me,Ph) predicted the latter to be a more potential electronic reservoir. Gas-phase observations on MAl 4- (M = Li, Na, Cu) and Li3Al-4 coupled with computations led to the conclusion that Al42− [Boldyrev and Wang et al, Science 291, 859 (2001)] is “aromatic” while Al44- is “antiaromatic” [Boldyrev and Wang et al, Science 300, 522 (2003)]. It has been reported by Pati et al [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 3496 (2005)] that co-ordination with a transition metal can stabilize the “antiaromatic” Al4Li4. In the ﬁrst section of chapter three, it has been reported that Al4Li4 can also be stabilized by capping it with main group element like C and its isoelectronic species BH. Calculations of binding energy, nuclear independent chemical shift (NICS), energy decomposition analysis and molecular orbital analysis supported the capping induced stability, reduction of bond length alternation and increase of aromaticity of these BH/C capped Al4Li4 systems. The interaction between px and py orbitals of BH/C and the HOMO and LUMO of Al4Li4 was responsible for such stabilization. Calculations suggested that capping might introduce ﬂuxionality in the molecule at room temperature. Al has valence electronic conﬁguration of s2p1 and Al42− has been shown to have multiple aromaticity [Boldyrev and Wang et al, Science 291, 859 (2001)]. Analogy between electronic conﬁguration s2pof Al and d1sof Sc/Y prompted us to explore the aromaticity of M42− clusters (M = Sc, Y ) which have been described in the second section of chapter three. Diﬀerent geometries of M42− clusters (M = Sc, Y ) were explored, and the planar butterﬂy-like D2h geometry (two fused triangles) was found to be the most stable isomer. This is unlike the case of Al42− where D4h isomer was the most stable one as reported in the literature. In D2h geometry of M42− clusters (M = Sc, Y ), signiﬁcant electron delocalization in each wing of the butterﬂy indicated fused d aromaticity. Atomization energy and chemical hardness supported the preference of D2h geometry over the D4h geometry. Molecular orbital analysis showed that the d-electrons were delocalized in each triangle of D2h geometry. Our interest in the search of new kinds of binuclear sandwich compounds led us to consider sandwiched metal dimers CB5H6M - MCB5H6 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) which are at the minima in the potential energy hypersurface with a characteristic M - M single bond. This work has been described in the ﬁrst section of chapter four. The NBO analysis and the M - M distances ( ˚A) (2.3, 2.44 and 2.81 for M= Si, Ge, Sn respectively) indicated substantial M - M bonding. Consecutive substitution of two boron atoms in B7H7−2 by M (Si, Ge, Sn) and carbon respectively led to neutral MCB5H7, where M - H bond bent towards the carbon side of the ﬁve membered ring. Dehydrogenation of two MCB5H7 might lead to our desired CB5H6M - MCB5H6 where similar bending of M -M bond has been observed. The bending of M - M bond in CB5H6M -MCB5H6 was more than the M - H bending in MCB5H7. Molecular orbital analysis has been done to understand the bending. Larger M - M bending observed in CB5H6M - MCB5H6 in comparison to M - H bending observed in MCB5H7 was suspected to be favored by stabilization of one of the M - M π bonding MO’s. Preference of M to occupy the apex of pentagonal skeleton of MCB5H7 over its icosahedral analogue MCB10H11 has been observed. Structures of sandwiched binuclear L- M – M - L where M = Ti, Zr and L = Cp, C3B3H6 were also investigated as described in second section of chapter four. We found that these compounds having bent geometry with short M - M distance (1.87˚A for M=Ti and 2.29˚A for M=Zr) lie at the minima in the potential energy hypersurface. Bending from the linear geometry led to the stabilization of M - L antibonding interaction in L - M – M - L. Molecular orbital analysis, NBO calculations, Wiberg bond index and charge analysis suggested M2+ unit to be embedded in between two L’s in L - M – M - L. Molecules that have the ability to perform interesting mechanical motions have always been of great interest. Umbrella inversion of ammonia is one of the most interesting and well studied phenomena. This study has led to the development of the MASER. The possibility of inversion of the molecule C9H9−Li+ by the movement of Li+ through the C9H9−ring was studied earlier [Das et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 320 (2002)]. In the ﬁfth chapter theoretical investigation on a B12 cluster has been reported, which could exhibit a through ring umbrella inversion. Calculations showed that a part of the molecule, consisting of a three membered boron ring could invert through the rest, viz., a nine membered boron ring. Using a simple model, the double well potential for the motion was calculated. The barrier for inversion was found to be 4.31 kcal/mol. The vibrational levels and tunneling splitting were calculated using this potential. It was found that the vibrational excitation to the v = 17 level caused large amplitude “inversion oscillation” of the molecule. After considering the tunneling eﬀect, inversion rate at 298K was calculated by using transition state theory and was found to be 1.17 x 1010/s. Finally, in the last chapter the main results of the thesis have been summarized.
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