Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flame : Studies On Lliftoff, Stabilization And Autoignition
Patwardhan, Saurabh Sudhir
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This thesis is concerned with investigations on two related issues of turbulent jet diffusion flame, namely (a) stabilization at liftoff and (b) autoignition in a turbulent jet diffusion flame. The approach of Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) has been taken. Fully elliptic first order CMC equations are solved with detailed chemistry to simulate lifted H2/N2 flame in vitiated coflow. The same approach is further used to simulate transient autoignition process in inhomogeneous mixing layers. In Chapter 1, difficulties involved in numerical simulation of turbulent combustion problems are explained. Different numerical tools used to simulate turbulent combustion are briefly discussed. Previous experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of lifted jet diffusion flames and autoignition are reviewed. Various research issues related to objectives of the thesis are discussed. In Chapter 2, the first order CMC transport equations for the reacting flows are presented. Various closure models that are required for solving the governing equations are given. Calculation of mean reaction rate term for detailed chemistry is given with special focus on the reaction rates for pressure dependent reactions. In Chapter 3, starting with the laminar flow code, further extension is carried to include kε turbulence model and PDF model. The code is validated at each stage of inclusion of different model. In this chapter, the code is first validated for the test problem of constant density, 2D, axisymmetric turbulent jet. Further, validation of PDF model is carried out by simulating the problem of nonreacting jet of cold air issuing into a vitiated coflow. The results are compared with the published data from experiments as well as numerical simulations. It is shown that the results compare well with the data. In Chapter 4, numerical results of lifted jet diffusion flame are presented. Detailed chemistry is modelled using Mueller mechanism for H2/O2 system with 9 species and 21 reversible reactions. Simulations are carried out for different jet velocities and coflow stream temperatures. The predicted liftoff generally agrees with experimental data, as well as joint PDF results. Profiles of mean scalar fluxes in the mixture fraction space, for different coflow temperatures reveal that (1) Inside the flamezone, the chemical term balances the molecular diffusion term, and hence the structure is of a diffusion flamelet for both cases. (2) In the preflame zone, the structure depends on the coflow temperature: for low coflow temperatures, the chemical term being small, the advective term balances the axial diffusion term. However, for the high coflow temperature case, the chemical term is large and balances the advective term, the axial diffusion term being small. It is concluded that, liftoff is controlled (a) by turbulent premixed flame propagation for low cofflow temperature while (b) by autoignition for high coflow temperature. In Chapter 5, the numerical results of autoignition in inhomogeneous mixing layer are presented. The configuration consists of a fuel jet issued into hot air for which transient simulations are performed. It is found that the constants assumed in various modelling terms can severely influence the results, particularly the flame temperature. Hence, modifications to these constants are suggested to obtain improved predictions. Preliminary work is carried out to predict autoignition lengths (which may be defined by Tign × Ujet incase of jet- and coflowvelocities being equal) by varying the coflow temperature. The autoignition lengths show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data and LES results. In Chapter 6, main conclusions of this thesis are summarized. Possible future studies on this problem are suggested.
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