Thin Films From Metalorganic Precursors : ALD Of VO2 And CVD Of (Al1-xGax)2O3
Thin films and coatings of oxides are used in various fields of science and technology, such as semiconductor and optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, protective and wear resistant coatings etc. Of late, there has been a tremendous interest in pure and doped vanadium dioxide as thermoelectric switch material. VO2 has been doped with hetero-atoms such as W, Mo, Nb, Ti etc. and effects of doping have been correlated with feasibility of being used as a smart window material. The oxide Al2O3 has been studied as an alternative gate dielectric. Ga2O3 is also a contender for replacing SiO2 as a dielectric material. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for the deposition of thin films of various materials and is found to be of considerable scientific and technological importance. In particular, using β-diketonate complexes as precursors is very useful in preparing thin films of oxides, as these precursors already contain a metal-oxygen bond. In this thesis, β-diketonate complexes have been used as precursors for deposition of thin films. The thesis has been divided into two parts: First part deals with deposition and characterization of thin films of VO2 on glass and fused quartz. The second part deals with synthesis and chemical and thermal characterization of bimetallic Al-Ga acetylacetonates along with thin film deposition using the same. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction to application of thin films of oxides in various fields of science and technology. A brief introduction to the ALD reactor used for the current work is also presented. The importance of thermal analysis of precursors for CVD is briefly reviewed. Chapter 2 deals with the instruments and methods used for the work done for this thesis. In Chapters 3 and 4 of the thesis, a detailed study of deposition of VO2 films on glass and fused quartz has been presented. The films deposited have been analyzed using a host of techniques, for their texture, microstructure and electrical properties. In spite of chemical similarities, considerable differences in structure and properties have been observed between the films deposited on the two substrates. These differences have been explained on the basis of the small chemical differences between the two substrates. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 deal with synthesis, thermal characterization and use of bimetallic Al-Ga precursors, respectively. The bimetallic acetylacetonates have been synthesized using ‘homogenization in solution’ approach. Chemical characterization of the precursors revealed that nominal percentages of Al and Ga are retained in the solid precursors. Single crystal structure confirmed the observation. Thermal analysis of the precursors showed that the precursors, which are solid solutions of Al and Ga acetylacetonates, show negative deviation from the Raoult’s Law. Films were deposited using these precursors and were found to near completely retain the composition of the precursors. Chapter 8 of the thesis presents the conclusions of the current work and proposes future directions.