Localization Induced Base Isolation In Fractionally And Hysteretically Damped Nonlinear Systems
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This Thesis comprises of two parts containing similar studies of Nonlinear Localization induced Base Isolation of structural systems. The present method of base isolation,like other nonlinear vibration isolation methods, enjoys certain merits like capability of absorbing broad band vibrations, attenuating heavy shocks etc. The research in this thesis is an extension of this base isolation strategy first proposed by Vakakis and co-author. The strategy involves augmenting an appendage referred to as the secondary system with the main structural unit or the primary system, which we want to isolate from disturbances at the base. The primary system is coupled to the secondary system through a stiffness element. Both the primary and secondary systems have nonlinear dynamic behavior. It is seen that for certain choice of values of the coupling element, steady state vibration of very small magnitude is induced in the primary system. This result was established by considering a general discrete nonlinear system with viscous damping. Now it is a well known fact that viscous damping, though being widely used in literature as well as in practice doesn't turn out to be accurate enough to capture structural damping behaviors. Moreover, the actual damping mechanism if governed by some nonlinear function of the system variables, may influence the physics governing the nonlinear localization phenomenon in a manner rendering the present method not suitable for structural systems at the very outset. So in the present study we focus our attention in establishing the robustness and hence utility of the method by considering technically more defensible models of structural damping. These models efficiently capture certain complex phenomena which structures are known to exhibit. The occurrence of localization induced vibration isolation in structural systems in the presence of these damping models is taken as a proof of the efficacy of the method and its applicability to a wide range of situations. The present study establishes existence of localization through relevant analytical and numerical exercises. In the first part of the thesis we take up the study of nonlinear localization induced base isolation of a three degrees of freedom system having cubic nonlinearities under sinusoidal base excitation. The damping forces in the system are hysteretic in nature. In the present setting this is captured by Bouc-Wen model of hysteresis. Bouc-Wen model is one of the most widely used phenomenological model of hysteresis to have a ready-to-use mathematical description of hysteretic patterns appearing in structural engineering systems. The nature of responses of the different degrees of freedom as excitation frequency varies is a better way of analyzing the performance of the vibration isolation system. We adopt this line of approach for the present study. Normally Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) serves this purpose very well but in the present case as the hysteretic variable is not explicitly related to the system variables, HBM cannot be straightway implemented. Moreover, the hysteretic variable is related to other state variables through a relation which contains non-smooth terms. As a result, Incremental Harmonic Balance (IHB) method is used to obtain amplitude frequency relationship of the system response. The stability analysis of the solution branches is done by using Floquet Theory. Direct numerical simulation is then made use of to support our results that are obtained from this approximate numeric-analytic estimate of the amplitudefrequency relationships of the system, which helps us to analyze the efficacy of this method of base isolation for a broad class of systems. In the next part we consider a similar system where the damping forces in the system are described by functions of fractional derivative of the instantaneous displacements. Fractional Derivative based damping model has been found to be very effective in describing structural damping. We adopt half-order fractional derivative for our study, which can capture damping behavior of polymeric material very well. Typically linear and quadratic damping is considered separately as these are the two most relevant representations of structural damping. Under the assumption of smallness of certain system parameters and nonlinear terms an approximate estimate of the response at each degree of freedom of the system is obtained using Method of Multiple Scales. We then consider a situation where the nonlinear terms and certain other system parameters are no longer small. For the case where asymptotic methods are no longer valid, the assessment of performance of the vibration isolation system is made from amplitude-frequency relations. As a result, we take recourse to the Harmonic Balance Method in conjunction with arc length based continuation technique for obtaining the frequency amplitude plot for linear damping and Incremental Harmonic Balance method for quadratic damping, each of which is validated against results obtained from direct numerical simulation of the system. It needs to be appreciated that base isolation obtained this way has no counterpart in the linear theory.
- Civil Engineering (CiE) 
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