Coding For Multi-Antenna Wireless Systems And Wireless Relay Networks
Communication over a wireless channel is a challenging task because of the inherent fading effects. Any wireless communication system employs some form of diversity improving techniques in order to improve the reliability of the channel. This thesis deals with efficient code design for two different spatial diversity techniques, viz, diversity by employing multiple antennas at the transmitter and/or the receiver, and diversity through cooperative commu- nication between users. In other words, this thesis deals with efficient code design for (1) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and (2) wireless relay channels. Codes for the MIMO channel are termed space-time (ST) codes and those for the relay channels are called distributed ST codes. The first part of the thesis focuses on ST code construction for MIMO fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver, and no CSI at the transmitter. As a measure of performance we use the rate-diversity tradeoff and the Diversity-Multiplexing Gain (D-MG) Tradeoff, which are two different tradeoffs characterizing the tradeoff between the rate and the reliability achievable by any ST code. We provide two types of code constructions that are optimal with respect to the rate-diversity tradeoff; one is based on the rank-distance codes which are traditionally applied as codes for storage devices, and the second construction is based on a matrix representation of a cayley algebra. The second contribution in ST code constructions is related to codes with a certain nonvanishing determinant (NVD) property. Motivation for these constructions is a recent result on the necessary and sufficient conditions for an ST code to achieve the D-MG tradeoff. Explicit code constructions satisfying these conditions are provided for certain number of transmit antennas. The second part of the thesis focuses on distributed ST code construction for wireless relay channel. The transmission protocol follows a two-hop model wherein the source broadcasts a vector in the first hop and in the second hop the relays transmit a vector that is a transformation of the received vector by a relay-specific unitary transformation. While the source and relays do not have CSI, at the destination we assume two different scenarios (a) destina- tion with complete CSI (b) destination with only the relay-destination CSI. For both these scenarios, we derive a Chernoff bound on the pair-wise error probability and propose code design criteria. For the first case, we provide explicit construction of distributed ST codes with lower decoding complexity compared to codes based on some earlier system models. For the latter case, we propose a novel differential encoding and differential decoding technique and also provide explicit code constructions. At the heart of all these constructions is the cyclic division algebra (CDA) and its matrix representations. We translate the problem of code construction in each of the above scenarios to the problem of constructing CDAs satisfying certain properties. Explicit examples are provided to illustrate each of these constructions.
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