Titanium Niobium Complex Oxide (TiNb2O7) Thin Films for Micro Battery Applications
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The research work presented in this thesis reports for the first time the fabrication of Titanium Niobium complex oxide (TiNb2O7 (TNO)) thin films by employing pulsed laser deposition and their use as the anode material in Li-ion micro batteries. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to complex metal oxides as multifunctional materials. In the first section of this chapter, a brief introduction is given about the history of TNO complex oxide material. The complex structure and properties of TNO oxide are also discussed briefly. In the second section, the importance and need of thin film batteries in emerging applications is discussed. Finally, the specific objectives of the current research are outlined in the last section. Chapter 2 gives the details about various experimental methods and characterization tools used in this research. The first part gives a brief overview about the principles and the use of different experimental methods involved in the growth of TNO thin films using pulsed laser deposition. Details, including the laboratory setup designed for PLD growth, also described briefly. In the second part, the different state-of-the-art characterization tools used in this research are described in terms of their principles and their applications such as measuring structural, morphological, chemical and electrochemical properties. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis and characterization of TNO bulk targets prepared via solid state reaction. In the first part, the detailed descriptions of experimental conditions are given. In the second part, the study of as-prepared TNO targets by various characterization tools such as XRD, Raman, SEM and XPS for understanding its structure, morphology and chemical properties are discussed briefly. The emphasis is made on the preparation of a quality target by careful observations. Chapter 4 mainly describes the comprehensive studies carried out on the fabrication and characterization of TNO thin films using PLD. In the first part, the preliminary experimental conditions for the growth of TNO thin films on Pt (200)/TiO2/SiO2/ Si (100) substrates are explained briefly. The importance of primary understanding about target-laser interaction through the structural, morphology changes observed by various characterization tools is discussed. In the latter part of the chapter, the effects of systematic variation of deposition parameters on the properties of the grown TNO thin films are described extensively. Various advanced characterization tools are used to study the changes in as-grown TNO thin films in terms of their structural, morphological and chemical changes by various advanced characterization tools. Chapter 5 is an account of the state-of-the-art characterization tools that are used on the as-grown TNO thin films for determining structural, compositional and elemental information with nanometer spatial resolution. In the first part, the effects of various processing conditions used during FIB are discussed briefly, along with observed results. An attempt has been made to solve the experimental difficulties during FIB for cross sectional sample preparation for HRTEM analysis. Later, the imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic studies carried out on TNO thin films using HRTEM, STEM HAADF, and EDXS elemental mapping are discussed in detail. Finally, obtained results are correlated to the experimental conditions during PLD growth. Chapter 6 focuses on the usage of as-grown TNO thin films as a new anode material in rechargeable Li-ion micro batteries. The various experimental details, battery cell fabrication, etc are described in the first part of the chapter. Then the comprehensive studies are carried out for demonstrating TNO thin films as anode material in micro batteries. Besides this, the basic cyclic voltammogram and charge-discharge tests carried out on a TNO electrode are discussed in detail. The structural, morphological studies are done before and after the electrochemical cell reaction to understand the crystal stability of TNO as an anode electrode. The effects of important experimental parameters on their electrochemical properties are also described briefly. Finally, the observed results are compared with existing literature. Chapter 7 summarizes the present research reported in this thesis and discusses the future research that could give insight into the understanding and optimization of TNO thin films for better usage in battery applications.