Design and Synthesis of Peptidomimics Constrained in Helical and Sheet Conformations using a Novel Covalent Surrogate for the Peptide Main Chain Hydrogen Bond
Nallapati, Lakshmi Aparna
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This thesis entitled “Design and Synthesis of Peptidomimics Constrained in Helical and Sheet Conformations Using a Novel Covalent Surrogate for the Peptide Main Chain Hydrogen Bond” is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1: Introduction to Ordered Conformations of Peptides and Strategies for Constraining Short Peptides in Ordered Conformations. The first chapter describes the different types of protein secondary structures and introduces the various prominent strategies developed thus far to constrain short peptides in ordered secondary structure-like conformations, with specific emphasis on helical and parallel β-sheet folds. Chapter 2: Design of Structure and General Methodology for the synthesis of Novel H-Bond Surrogate Constrained Cyclic α-Helical Mimics Here we develop the first design of the propyl linker as a covalent surrogate for the peptide H-bond. The first synthetic methodology is described for the synthesis of constraining shortest peptide sequences (tripeptides) in α-helix-like conformations. The Macrolactamization strategy proved to work best as the final step for cyclization. All residues of the turn are completely retained in the constrained sequence, unlike any other earlier method. More importantly, there are no metal involved as catalysts in any of the synthetic transformations, hence removing the problem of metal-bound cyclic structures – which have otherwise rendered these structures non-usable as drug leads in the earlier models. Gly-rich peptides have been constrained as extreme cases of highest chain entropy and least helix propensity. Both secondary and tertiary amide containing peptides have been synthesized using this protocol. Note that the macrolactamization was found to be better than the Fukuyama-Mitsunobu N-alkylation protocol for the final cyclization step. Chapter 3: Synthesis of C-terminal Extended HBS-Constrained Helical Turn Mimics – Validation of the Versatility of Current synthetic protocol The developed cyclization protocol is extended towards the synthesis of C-terminal extended α-helical turn mimics using a solution phase peptide synthesis procedure. Peptides which extend belong the helical turn by a high entropy Gly-residue at the C-terminal are synthesized. The versatility of the synthetic methodology to accommodate sterically constrained amino acid residues – in the form of phenylalanine residue – at any of the positions i+1, i+2 or i+3 of the constrained helical turn is demonstrated. The synthesized are easily isolated without need for column chromatography, in high purity and good yields – this is due to the presence of the N-terminal amino group, salts of which are easily triturated to remove all other organic impurities. Chapter 4: Synthesis and CD conformational analyses of HBS constrained α-Helical turn mimics containing residues with improved helical propensities Alanine residue has the highest helix propensity among all other natural α-amino acid residues. Its enthalpic contribution to the helical conformation is 1 kcal/mol more than that for the Gly residue, which has the least propensity. Incorporation of Ala residue in the Gly-rich cyclic sequences in either the middle of constrained tripeptide or as the C-terminal extended residue has been accomplished. Comparison of the CD spectra of the synthesized cyclic α-helical turn peptides reveals that a tertiary amide linkage is essential for the propyl linker at the C-terminal amino appendage, for helicity to be observed. Helicity improves upon introduction of the first extended residue. The constrained and C-terminal extended α-helical turn mimics show consistently high helicity irrespective of the helix propensities of the component residues showing that the covalent propyl linker surrogate for the H-bond overwhelms the natural propensities of individual amino acid residues towards enabling stabilization of the helical turn and offer far better structural organization to this cause. Chapter 5: Synthesis of shortest HBS-constrained 310 and - helical peptide analogues The unique versatility of the novel covalent propyl linker surrogate for the peptide H-bond is exhibited by its ability to constrain dipeptides in 310-helix like structures. This is the first and the only HBS model that can achieve this synthetic target as the synthetic protocol allows the conservation of both the residues as is in the constrained helical turn. Similarly, the trapping of a pentapeptide in a C-terminal extended rare and unstable -helix like cyclic structure using the current HBS linker is achieved. Considering the high entropic cost for cyclizing such a long 16-membered chain into a constrained structure, this again exhibits the versatility of the currently developed HBS design and the currently developed synthetic methodology. Chapter 6: First design and synthesis of novel H-bond surrogate constrained parallel β-sheet mimics H-bonding interactions stabilize another prevalently observed secondary structure, other than helical structures, namely the -sheets. The parallel -sheets that almost qualify for super secondary structures due to the high contact orders in them are thought to mimic in models, unlike the easier antiparallel -sheets. Here we replace the inter-strand peptide H-bond between parallel -strands to create excised templates as parallel -sheet nucleators. The propyl linker acts as a dynamic linker in these models and the two amino groups are protected with bulky sulphonamides, in order to provide Thorpe-Ingold effect to the peptide chain. The protocol for synthesizing these models has been described and the different analogues that are synthesized thus have been described. This is the first instance of synthesis of parallel -sheet mimics using the covalent surrogates for the peptide H-bond.
- Organic Chemistry (OC)