Experimental Analysis of Shock Stand off Distance over Spherical Bodies in Hypersonic Flows
One of the characteristics of the high speed ows over blunt bodies is the detached shock formed in front of the body. The distance of the shock from the stagnation point measured along the stagnation streamline is termed as the shock stand o distance or the shock detachment distance. It is one of the most basic parameters in such ows. The need to know the shock stand o distance arises due to the high temperatures faced in these cases. The biggest challenge faced in high enthalpy ows is the high amounts of heat transfer to the body. The position of the shock is relevant in knowing the temperatures that the body being subjected to such ows will have to face and thus building an efficient system to reduce the heat transfer. Despite being a basic parameter, there is no theoretical means to determine the shock stand o distance which is accepted universally. Deduction of this quantity depends more or less on experimental or computational means until a successful theoretical model for its predictions is developed. The experimental data available in open literature for spherical bodies in high speed ows mostly lies beyond the 2 km/s regime. Experiments were conducted to determine the shock stand o distance in the velocity range of 1-2 km/s. Three different hemispherical bodies of radii 25, 40 and 50 mm were taken as test models. Since the shock stand o distance is known to depend on the density ratio across the shock and hence gamma (ratio of specific heats), two different test gases, air and carbon dioxide were used for the experiments here. Five different test cases were studied with air as the test gas; Mach 5.56 with Reynolds number of 5.71 million/m and enthalpy of 1.08 MJ/kg, Mach 5.39 with Reynolds number of 3.04 million/m and enthalpy of 1.42 MJ/kg Mach 8.42 with Reynolds number of 1.72 million/m and enthalpy of 1.21 MJ/kg, Mach 11.8 with Reynolds number of 1.09 million/m and enthalpy of 2.03 MJ/kg and Mach 11.25 with Reynolds number of 0.90 million/m and enthalpy of 2.88 MJ/kg. For the experiments conducted with carbon dioxide as test gas, typical freestream conditions were: Mach 6.66 with Reynolds number of 1.46 million/m and enthalpy of 1.23 MJ/kg. The shock stand o distance was determined from the images that were obtained through schlieren photography, the ow visualization technique employed here. The results obtained were found to follow the same trend as the existing experimental data in the higher velocity range. The experimental data obtained was compared with two different theoretical models given by Lobb and Olivier and was found to match. Simulations were carried out in HiFUN, an in-house CFD package for Euler and laminar own conditions for Mach 8 own over 50 mm body with air as the test gas. The computational data was found to match well with the experimental and theoretical data
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