Application Of ANN Techniques For Identification Of Fault Location In Distribution Networks
Electric power distribution network is an important part of electrical power systems for delivering electricity to consumers. Electric power utilities worldwide are increasingly adopting the computer aided monitoring, control and management of electric power distribution systems to provide better services to the electrical consumers. Therefore, research and development activities worldwide are being carried out to automate the electric power distribution system. The power distribution system consists of a three-phase source supplying power through single-, two-, or three-phase distribution lines, switches, and transformers to a set of buses with a given load demand. In addition, unlike transmission systems, single-, two-, and three-phase sections exist in the network and single-, two-, and three-phase loads exist in the distribution networks. Further, most distribution systems are overhead systems, which are susceptible to faults caused by a variety of situations such as adverse weather conditions, equipment failure, traffic accidents, etc. When a fault occurs on a distribution line, it is very important for the utility to identify the fault location as quickly as possible for improving the service reliability. Hence, one of the crucial blocks in the operation of distribution system is that of fault detection and it’s location. The achievement of this objective depends on the success of the distribution automation system. The distribution automation system should be implemented quickly and accurately in order to isolate those affected branches from the healthy parts and to take alternative measures to restore normal power supply. Fault location in the distribution system is a difficult task due to its high complexity and difficulty caused by unique characteristics of the distribution system. These unique characteristics are discussed in the present work. In recent years, some techniques have been discussed for the location of faults, particularly in radial distribution systems. These methods use various algorithmic approaches, where the fault location is iteratively calculated by updating the fault current. Heuristic and Expert System approaches for locating fault in distribution system are also proposed which uses more measurements. Measurements are assumed to be available at the sending end of the faulty line segment, which are not true in reality as the measurements are only available at the substation and at limited nodes of the distribution networks through the use of remote terminal units. The emerging techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be a solution to this problem. Among the various AI based techniques like Expert systems, Fuzzy Set and ANN systems, the ANN approach for fault location is found to be encouraging. In this thesis, an ANN approaches with limited measurements are used to locate fault in long distribution networks with laterals. Initially the distribution system modeling (using actual a-b-c phase representation) for three-, two-, and single-phase laterals, three-, two-, and single- phase loads are described. Also an efficient three-phase load flow and short circuit analysis with loads are described which is used to simulate all types of fault conditions on distribution systems. In this work, function approximation (FA) is the main technique used and the classification techniques take a major supportive role to the FA problem. Fault location in distribution systems is explained as a FA problem, which is difficult to solve due to the various practical constraints particular to distribution systems. Incorporating classification techniques reduce this FA problem to simpler ones. The function that is approximated is the relation between the three-phase voltage and current measurements at the substation and at selected number of buses (inputs), and the line impedance of the fault points from the substation (outputs). This function is approximated by feed forward neural network (FFNN). Similarly for solving the classification problems such as fault type classification and source short circuit level classification, Radial Basis Probabilistic Neural Network (RBPNN) has been employed. The work presented in this thesis is the combinational use of FFNN and RBPNN for estimating the fault location. Levenberg Marquardt learning method, which is robust and fast, is used for training FFNN. A typical unbalanced 11-node test system, an IEEE 34 nodes test system and a practical 69- bus long distribution systems with different configurations are considered for the study. The results show that the proposed approaches of fault location gives accurate results in terms of estimated fault location. Practical situations in distribution systems such as unbalanced loading, three-, two-, and single- phase laterals, limited measurements available, all types of faults, a wide range of varying source short circuit levels, varying loading conditions, long feeders with multiple laterals and different network configurations are considered for the study. The result shows the feasibility of applying the proposed method in practical distribution system fault diagnosis.
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