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dc.contributor.advisorPrabhu, K R
dc.contributor.authorYogesh, S
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-13T11:44:54Z
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-30T15:13:17Z
dc.date.available2018-06-13T11:44:54Z
dc.date.available2018-07-30T15:13:17Z
dc.date.issued2018-06-13
dc.date.submitted2017
dc.identifier.urihttp://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/3698
dc.identifier.abstracthttp://etd.iisc.ac.in/static/etd/abstracts/4568/G28588-Abs.pdfen_US
dc.description.abstractThe thesis entitled “Design and Development of Metal-Free Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions for the construction of C-S, C-O and C-C bonds” is divided into three Chapters. Chapter 1 is presented in five parts, which reveals the cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) strategies for the C–S bond forming reactions through C–H functionalization strategy using heterocyclic thiols and thiones. Chapter 2 presents tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) catalyzed chemoselective α-aminoxylation of ketones with N-hydroxyimidates using TBHP as oxidant under cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) strategy. Chapter 3 describes a transition metal-free Minisci reaction for the acylation of isoquinolines, quinolines, and quinoxaline. Chapter 1 Iodine Promoted C-S Bond Forming Reactions using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant Chapter 1 reveals the utility of cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reactions for the formation of C–S bonds by employing C–H functionalization strategies.1 The direct functionalization of C–H bonds to form C–C and C–X (N, O, S and P) bonds using metal-free reaction conditions is an interesting research topic in recent years.2 Use of dimethyl sulfoxide as an oxidant is emerging as one of the research topics of great interest and utility.3 Heterocyclic thiols and thiones are important precursors for synthesizing a variety of pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds.4 Therefore it is useful to develop CDC reactions using heterocyclic thiols and thiones as precursors. In this chapter, we describe CDC reactions of heterocyclic thiols and thiones for the sulfenylation of ketones, aldehydes, α, β unsaturated methyl ketone derivatives, pyrazolones, enaminones and imidazoheterocycles using DMSO as an oxidant Chapter 1: Part 1 Iodine Promoted Regioselective α-Sulfenylation of Carbonyl Compounds using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant: In this chapter, a rare regioselective C–H sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds with heterocyclic thiones and thiols have been described using iodine and dimethyl sulfoxide as reagents. Thus, dimethyl sulfoxide (as an oxidant) and stoichiometric amount of iodine have been used for the sulfenylation of ketones using heterocyclic thiones. Whereas the sulfenylation of ketones with heterocyclic thiols required catalytic amount of iodine. This protocol offers a rare regioselective sulfenylation of (i) methyl ketones in the presence of more reactive α-CH2 or α-CH groups, and (ii) aldehydes under CDC method. A few representative examples are highlighted in Scheme 1.5 The application of this methodology has been demonstrated by synthesizing a few precursors for Julia-Kocienski olefination intermediates. Scheme 1. Iodine promoted rare regioselective α-sulfenylation of ketones and aldehydes Siddaraj , Y.; Prabhu, K. R. Org. Lett. 2016, 18, 6090 Chapter 1: Part 2 Regioselective Sulfenylation of α’-CH3 or α’-CH2 Groups of α, β Unsaturated Ketones using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant: In this chapter, an interesting regioselective sulfenylation of α’-CH3 or α’-CH2 groups of α, β unsaturated ketones using dimethyl sulfoxide as an oxidant and catalytic amount of aq. HI (20 mol %) as an additive has been described. This eco-friendly method uses readily available, inexpensive I2 or HI and DMSO. This methodology exhibits a high regioselectivity without forming Michael addition product in the presence of strong acid such as aq. HI or iodine, which is difficult to achieve under cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) conditions. Current methodology exhibits a broad substrate scope. A few examples are shown in Scheme 2.6 Scheme 2. HI and DMSO promoted α’-sulfenylation of α, β unsaturated ketones Siddaraju, Y.; Prabhu, K. R. (Manuscript submitted) Chapter 1: Part 3 Iodine Catalyzed Sulfenylation of Pyrazolones using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant: In this chapter, a sustainable and efficient strategy for the sulfenylation of pyrazolones has been described using metal-free conditions by employing DMSO as an oxidant and iodine as a catalyst. A variety of heterocyclic thiols, heterocyclic thiones and disulfides undergo C–H functionalization reaction with pyrazolone derivatives furnishing the corresponding sulfenylated products in short time. Most of the products are isolated in pure form without column purification. A few examples are presented in Scheme 3.7 Scheme 3. Iodine promoted sulfenylation of pyrazolones Siddaraju, Y.; Prabhu, K. R. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2017, 15, 5191 Chapter 1: Part 4 Iodine-Catalyzed Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: Sulfenylation of Enaminones using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant: In this chapter, synthesis of poly functionalized aminothioalkenes has been described using substoichiometric amount of iodine and DMSO as an oxidant. This metal-free methodology enables a facile sulfenylation of enaminones with heterocyclic thiols and thiones. This methodology is one of the simple approaches for the sulfenylation of enaminones under cross dehydrogenative coupling method. A few examples are highlighted in Scheme 4.8 Scheme 4. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling approach for sulfenylation of enaminones Siddaraju, Y.; Prabhu, K. R. J. Org. Chem. 2017, 82, 3084 Chapter 1: Part 5 Iodine-Catalyzed Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: A Regioselective Sulfenylation of Imidazoheterocycles using DMSO as an Oxidant: In this chapter, a simple synthetic approach for the regioselective sulfenylation of imidazoheterocycles using iodine as a catalyst and DMSO as an oxidant under cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction conditions has been demonstrated. This protocol provides an efficient, mild and inexpensive method for coupling heterocyclic thiols and heterocyclic thiones with imidazoheterocycles. This is the first report on sulfenylation of imidazoheterocycles with heterocyclic thiols and heterocyclic thiones under metal-free conditions. A few examples are shown in Scheme 5.9 Scheme 5. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling approach for sulfenylation of imidazoheterocycles Siddaraju, Y.; Prabhu, K. R. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 7838 Chapter 2 Chemoselective α-Aminoxylation of Aryl Ketones: Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Tetrabutyl Ammonium Iodide: In this chapter, chemoselective α-aminoxylation of ketones with N-hydroxyimidates catalyzed by tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) has been presented. The coupling reaction of a variety of ketones with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHSI), N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) or 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) using TBHP as oxidant has been investigated. This α-aminoxylation of ketones is chemoselective as aryl methyl ketones, aliphatic ketones as well as benzylic position are inactive under the reaction condition. A few examples are highlighted in Scheme 6.10 The application of this method has been demonstrated by transforming a few coupled products into synthetically useful vinyl phosphates. Scheme 6. Chemoselective α-aminoxylation of ketones with N-hydroxyimidates Siddaraju, Y.; Prabhu, K. R. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015, 13, 11651 Chapter 3 A Transition Metal-Free Minisci Reaction: Acylation of Isoquinolines, Quinolines, and Quinoxaline: In this chapter, transition metal-free acylation of isoquinoline, quinoline and quinoxaline derivatives with aldehydes has been described by employing TBAB (tetrabutyl ammonium bromide, 30 mol %) and K2S2O8 as an oxidant under cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction. This intermolecular acylation of electron-deficient heteroarenes provides an easy access and a novel acylation method of heterocyclic compounds. The application of this CDC strategy has been illustrated by synthesizing isoquinoline-derived natural products. A few representative examples are shown in Scheme 7.11 Scheme 7. CDC reactions of heteroarenes with aldehydes Siddaraju, Y.; Lamani, M.; Prabhu, K. R. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 3856en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesG28588en_US
dc.subjectCross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactionsen_US
dc.subjectChemoselective α-Aminoxylationen_US
dc.subjectAcylation Quinolinesen_US
dc.subjectTransition Metal Free Minisci Reactionen_US
dc.subjectCDC Reactionsen_US
dc.subjectDimethyl Sulfoxideen_US
dc.subjectCarbonyl Compoundsen_US
dc.subjectKetonesen_US
dc.subjectPyrazolonesen_US
dc.subject.classificationOrcanic Chemistryen_US
dc.titleDesign and Development of Metal-free Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reactions for the Construction of C-S, C-O and C-C bondsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.degree.namePhDen_US
dc.degree.levelDoctoralen_US
dc.degree.disciplineFaculty of Scienceen_US


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