Active Power Flow Tracing for Preventive Control in Deregulated Power Systems
Modern day power systems present an open access environment, inspiring participation from small scale and large power suppliers. With multiple players in the system driven by the market, proper monitoring and control of system becomes a major concern. This transformation is accompanied by dynamic consumption patterns and rising power demands. The expanding network encompassing EHV/AC network, HVDC and FACTS devices, along with increased penetration of renewable sources, viz. solar and wind energy at medium and low voltage levels, adds to the problem. Independent System Operators (ISO) are entrusted with ensuring smooth operation, and employing proper preventive measures to eliminate a possible cascade tripping leading to a partial or large-scale blackout. To aid the operator in the process of ensuring secure operation of the grid, there are many tools that provide required information and guidance. Power flow tracing is one such tool that aids the operator in congestion management, transmission pricing, transaction evaluation, loss allocation and reactive power optimization. In this thesis, a novel active power flow tracing approach is proposed that takes into account, the real-time operating conditions and network topology. It provides the decomposition of active power flow in a line into respective components injected by various generators in the system. It also provides the contribution of the generators to various loads in the system. The approach is simple and computationally fast, making it an ideal tool to aid preventive control decisions. Based on the proposed active power flow tracing, a congestion management approach is developed. The approach indicates the least number of generators that need to be coordinated for generation rescheduling, so as to alleviate overloading in affected transmission lines and transformers. The approach also takes into consideration the operating constraints on the system, while computing the optimal rescheduling amongst selected generators using LP technique. The thesis also presents a real power loss allocation approach based on the proposed power flow tracing. Loss allocation is an important part of tariff design as the cost associated with losses amounts to a sizable fraction of total revenue collected from the loads. The approach provides information as to how losses are distributed among loads and how much each generator is providing for the loss share of each load. The approaches developed in the thesis are illustrated on a sample 10-bus equivalent system, IEEE 30-bus, and IEEE 39-bus systems. Results for typical case studies are presented for practical systems of 72-bus equivalent and 203-bus equivalent of Indian Southern grid.
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