Syntheses Structural Transformations, Magnetism, Ferroelectricity and Proton Conduction of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOF) Compounds
MetadataShow full item record
The past few decades have witnessed an almost exponential increase in interest in the field of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), which can be evidenced from the large number of scientific articles being published routinely in this area. The MOFs are crystalline hybrid materials built via the judicial use of inorganic metal ions and organic linkers, thereby bridging the gap between purely inorganic and organic materials. The structural versatility and the potential tunability of the MOFs imparts unique physicochemical and thermomechanical properties, which have rendered them immensely useful in the branches of chemistry, material science, physics, biology, nanotechnology, medicine as well as environmental engineering. The MOFs have been shown to be promising as materials for gas storage and separation, sensors, ferroelectric and non-linear optical materials, magnetism, catalysis, drug delivery etc and researchers have been devising strategies to utilize the MOFs to tackle a number of global challenges of the twenty-first century. A survey of the literature reveals that the linear organic linkers, 1,4- benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) and 4,4’-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BPDC), have been the organic linkers of choice for the construction of stable, porous and multifunctional MOFs. The aim of this thesis has been to monitor the effect that the presence of a functional group in between the benzene rings of the BPDC would have on the overall structures and the properties of the MOFs. Thus, as part of the investigations, the preparation of the MOF compounds using 4,4’-sulfonyldibenzoic acid (SDBA) and 4,4’- azodibenzoic acid (ABA) have been accomplished. Along with the conventional hydrothermal and solvothermal synthetic techniques, the liquid-liquid biphasic reaction method was also utilized for the synthesis of some of the compounds. The structures of the compounds were ascertained from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Proton conductivity studies were performed on Mn based porous MOFs using AC impedance spectroscopy. The ferroelectric behavior in a Co based porous MOF was established using dielectric and polarization vs electric field measurements. The labile nature of the lattice solvent molecules was established utilizing single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and water sorption experiments. In addition, the site selective substitution in a homometallic MOF and the subsequent conversion to a mixed-metal spinel oxide upon thermal decomposition, have also been studied. Chapter 1 of the thesis is a brief overview of the metal organic framework compounds and summarizes the various important structures that have been reported in literature and the interesting properties that they exhibit. In chapter 2, the proton conductivity behavior, solvent mediated single crystal to single crystal (SCSC) and related structural transformations in a family of Mn and Co based porous MOFs with SDBA have been presented. Also presented are the results of the site selective substitution of Mn by Co in a homometallic Mn based MOF and it’s subsequent decomposition to CoMn2O4 spinel oxide nanoparticles. In chapter 3, the syntheses, structures and the magnetic properties of the pentanuclear Mn5 based MOF compounds with SDBA have been presented. The role of the time and the temperature in the formation of the compounds has also been presented. In chapter 4, the dehydration/rehydration mediated switchable room temperature ferroelectric behavior, the single crystal to single crystal solvent exchange studies and selective gas sorption behavior in an anionic Co based MOF with SDBA has been discussed. In chapter 5, the use of the liquid-liquid biphasic synthetic route in the formation of Zn and Cd based MOFs with ABA has been discussed. Structural transformations between the one dimensional Zn based compounds and the heterogeneous catalytic studies using the Cd based compounds have also been presented.