Efficient Design of Embedded Data Acquisition Systems Based on Smart Sampling
Satyanarayana, J V
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Data acquisition from multiple analog channels is an important function in many embedded devices used in avionics, medical electronics, robotics and space applications. It is desirable to engineer these systems to reduce their size, power consumption, heat dissipation and cost. The goal of this research is to explore designs that exploit a priori knowledge of the input signals in order to achieve these objectives. Sparsity is a commonly observed property in signals that facilitates sub-Nyquist sampling and reconstruction through compressed sensing, thereby reducing the number of A to D conversions. New architectures are proposed for the real-time, compressed acquisition of streaming signals. A. It is demonstrated that by sampling a collection of signals in a multiplexed fashion, it is possible to efficiently utilize all the available sampling cycles of the analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs), facilitating the acquisition of multiple signals using fewer ADCs. The proposed method is modified to accommodate more general signals, for which spectral leakage, due to the occurrence of non-integral number of cycles in the reconstruction window, violates the sparsity assumption. When the objective is to only detect the constituent frequencies in the signals, as against exact reconstruction, it can be achieved surprisingly well even in the presence of severe noise (SNR ~ 5 dB) and considerable undersampling. This has been applied to the detection of the carrier frequency in a noisy FM signal. Information redundancy due to inter-signal correlation gives scope for compressed acquisition of a set of signals that may not be individually sparse. A scheme has been proposed in which the correlation structure in a set of signals is progressively learnt within a small fraction of the duration of acquisition, because of which only a few ADCs are adequate for capturing the signals. Signals from the different channels of EEG possess significant correlation. Employing signals taken from the Physionet database, the correlation structure of nearby EEG electrodes was captured. Subsequent to this training phase, the learnt KLT matrix has been used to reconstruct signals of all the electrodes with reasonably good accuracy from the recordings of a subset of electrodes. Average error is below 10% between the original and reconstructed signals with respect to the power in delta, theta and alpha bands: and below 15% in the beta band. It was also possible to reconstruct all the channels in the 10-10 system of electrode placement with an average error less than 8% using recordings on the sparser 10-20 system. In another design, a set of signals are collectively sampled on a finer sampling grid using ADCs driven by phase-shifted clocks. Thus, each signal is sampled at an effective rate that is a multiple of the ADC sampling rate. So, it is possible to have a less steep transition between the pass band and the stop band, thereby reducing the order of the anti-aliasing filter from 30 to 8. This scheme has been applied to the acquisition of voltages proportional to the deflection of the control surfaces in an aerospace vehicle. The idle sampling cycles of an ADC that performs compressive sub-sampling of a sparse signal, can be used to acquire the residue left after a coarse low-resolution sample is taken in the preceding cycle, like in a pipelined ADC. Using a general purpose, low resolution ADC, a DAC and a summer, one can acquire a sparse signal with double the resolution of the ADC, without having to use a dedicated pipelined ADC. It has also been demonstrated as to how this idea can be applied to achieve a higher dynamic range in the acquisition of fetal electrocardiogram signals. Finally, it is possible to combine more than one of the proposed schemes, to handle acquisition of diverse signals with di_erent kinds of sparsity. The implementation of the proposed schemes in such an integrated design can share common hardware components so as to achieve a compact design.
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