Phase Behaviour in Crystalline Solids : Exploring the Structure Guiding Factors Via Polymorphism, Phase Transitions and Charge Density Studies
Thomas, Sajesh P
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The thesis entitled "Phase Behaviour in Crystalline Solids: Exploring the Structure Guiding Factors via Polymorphism, Phase Transitions and Charge Density Studies" consists of five chapters divided into two parts. A basic introductory section describes the topics relevant to the work and the methods and techniques utilized. Part A contains two chapters that discuss the structural aspects related to polymorphism, solvatomorphism, conformational preferences and phase transitions exhibited by active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It also discusses the structure-property correlations in API crystal forms and the possible utility of second harmonic generation (SHG) for their bulk characterization. Part B has three chapters that discuss experimental and theoretical charge density analyses of intra-and intermolecular interactions that play structure guiding roles in some of the APIs discussed in Part A. The main focus of the present work is to characterize the interaction patterns devoid of strong classical hydrogen bonds. The case studies include multifurcated C - H …O hydrogen bonds, the “carbon bonding” and chalcogen interactions involving Se and S atoms. In addition to charge density studies, in situcryocrystallography and molecular complexation experiments have been employed to examine structural consequences of chalcogen bonding. Further, Appendices 1 and 2 describe phase transition studies on the inorganic mineral kröhnkite and its high temperature phase transitions leading to novel inorganic structural types. Part A: Polymorphism and phase behaviour in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) Chapter 1 discusses case studies of polymorphism, supramolecular preference sand phase transitions exhibited by active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Section 1.1 deals with the polymorphism of an anti-oxidant drug candidate ebselen and its hydroxyl derivative. The potential of organoselenium compounds to form a Se…O chalcogen bonded supramolecular recognition unit (synthon) has been established in these polymorphs and its generality is substantiated with the help of a Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) analysis. Section 1.2 demonstrates the utility of the ‘chalcogen bonded supramolecularsynthon’ in generating molecular complexes of APIs. A series of salts and co-crystals of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis drug Riluzole have been synthesized in order to evaluate the structure directing role of S…O chalcogen bonded synthon in their crystal structures. Section 1.3adescribes the generation of polymorphs and solvatomorphs of the antidepressant drug candidate fenobamand associated phase transitions. The tautomeric preference in this molecule has been rationalized from the crystal structure analysis and abinitioenergy calculations. Further, section 1.3b utilizes chemical derivatization as a means to experimentally simulate thetautomeric preference and molecular conformations in several derivatives of fenobam and thiofenobam. Section 1.4 describes the issue of solvatomorphism and the generation of the fifth solvatomorph of gallic acid, its structural complexity and temperature induced phase transitions. The ability of solvent water molecules to drive structural diversity, by forming ‘hydration synthons’,is demonstrated in this case. Chapter 2 presents a novel methodology for the detection of polymorphic impurities in APIs based on second harmonic generation (SHG).The SHG based method has been employed to polymorphic mixtures of fenobam, hydrochlorothiazide, pyrazinamide, tolbutamide, curcumin, febuxostat and nimesulide.The conventional methods such as powder X-ray diffraction (profile fitting analysis), FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysesto detect the presence of polymorphic impuritiesin bulk API samples are employed on the mixtures of these API samples and the impurity detection limits are compared with the proposed SHG methodology. The APIs used in these case studies were screened for their SHG efficiency using quantum chemical calculations of hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO charge redistribution behaviour. Further, a correlation with the crystal symmetry, relative packing arrangement of molecules and the observed SHG efficiency have been discussed in of some of these cases. Part B: Exploring the nature and structural consequences of nonbonding interactions in molecular crystals Chapter 3 discusses the electron density features of quasi-trifurcated CH…Cl/CH…O interaction motifs leading to ‘carbon bonding’ and a trifurcated CH…O hydrogen bond motif. Section 3.1 describes the experimental and theoretical charge density analyses of quasi-trifurcated CH…Cl and CH…O motifsand investigates the existence of “carbon bonding” in solid state. The experimental charge density evidence for “carbon bonding” have been analyzed in cases of fenobam and dimethylamine: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid complex. The existence of this unconventional interaction, which roughly mimics the transition state geometry of SN2 (bimolecular nucleophilic substitution) reaction, is further established by a CSD analysis. Section 3.2 describes the experimental and theoretical charge density analyses of ferulic acid and compares the topological features associated with a trifurcated CH…O hydrogen bond motif, with corresponding strong classical OH…O hydrogen bonds. The study demonstrates the “Gulliver effect” of weak interactions in charge density terms. Charge density based interaction energy calculations via EPMM and EML methods have been utilized in this context to evaluate the relative strength of such interactions. Chapter 4 discusses the charge density features of intermolecular chalcogen bonding interactions involving selenium and sulphur atoms.Section 4.1 describes the experimental and theoretical charge density analyses of ebselen and its hydroxyl derivative. The charge density characterization of the conserved chalcogen bond synthon (discussed in chapter 1, section 1.1) has been carried out and electronic nature and geometric dependence of Se…O interactions have been explored. The mechanism of drug action of ebselen has been correlated with the experimentally observed charge density distribution around the intramolecular SeC and SeN bonds. Section 4.2 explores the homochalcogen interactions such as S…SandSe…Se in phenol analogues. In situ cryocrystallographic studies on thiophenol, selenophenol and their solid solutions are described. Veggard’s law-like behaviour observed in these solid solutions have been rationalized and the S…S and Se…Sehomochalcogen interactions have been evaluated in these liquid systems which are devoid of any other packing forces such as strong hydrogen bonds. Chapter 5 discusses the conformation locking potential of intramolecular S…O chalcogen bonding in sulfadrugs. Section 5.1 discusses conformation locking in the antibioticdrugsulfamethizole. A two pronged approach has been adopted in the study; a) generation of cocrystals and salts of sulfamethizole for the ‘experimental simulation’ of the molecular conformation, b) evaluation of charge density distribution around the intramolecular S…O interaction region in sulfamethizole. Section 5.2 describes the effect of ‘simple hybridized orbital geometry’ in the formation of intramolecular S…O chalcogen bonding. The experimental charge density analysis of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drug acetazolamide has been carried out and the two different intramolecular S…O geometries have been compared in terms of the charge density topology. The analysis highlights the advantage of “orbital geometry” consideration over the conventional distance-angle criteria in assessing nonbonded interactions.
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