Chemistry of Ru(II) Complexes Bearing Sigma Bonded H-X (X = H, Si, C) Species/Fragments
Naidu, Kola Sattaiah
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Introduction The chemistry of transitional metal complexes bearing σ-bonded H−X (X = H, Si, C) species/fragments, the so called σ-complexes, are key intermediates in catalytic processes such as hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, alkane functionalization etc. Particularly, the σ-H2 complexes form the best-known group of σ-complexes in which H2 is bound to the metal center in η2-fashion. Several well characterized examples of η2-silane and η2-borane complexes have also been reported. Moreover, in recent years, the carbon analogues of these complexes in which alkanes are coordinated through η2-C-H bonds to the metal center have been attracting the attention of organometallic chemists. An approach towards direct functionalization of σ-bonds in simple alkanes is the heterolytic activation of the C−H bond using highly electrophilic complexes. After all, for fine catalyst design and the selective functionalization of H−H, silanes or simple alkanes, it is necessary to understand the bonding nature of these σ-complexes in depth. Objectives The objectives of this work are as follows a) An attempt to stabilize and gain insights into the bonding nature and reactivity behavior of various sigma ligands on ruthenium center [Ru(η2-HX)(Tpms)(PPh3)2][OTf], (X = H, SiR (R = Me3 or Me2Ph) and CH3). b) Synthesis, characterization and reactivity studies of electrophilic ruthenium(II) complexes bearing (C6F5)2PCH2CH2P(C6F5)2 (dfppe) ligand towards heterolysis of H2. c) An approach towards preparation of insoluble molecular clusters from [Ru(P(OH)3)(dppe)2][OTf]2 complex and Zn, Cd and Cu acetates to realize σ-bond activation under heterogeneous conditions. Significant results In our attempts to gain insights into the bonding nature and reactivity behavior of σ-H2, silane and methane complexes, we followed two strategies to generate these complexes in solution. First, we synthesized and well characterized two new Ru(II)-complexes [RuH(Tpms)(PPh3)2] and [Ru(OTf)(Tpms)(PPh3)2], (OTf = trifluoromethane sulfonate) where Ru-H and Ru-OTf are the key reactive centers, followed by their subsequent reactions with electrophilic reagents such as HOTf, Me3SiOTf and CH3OTf and with H2, PhMe2SiH and CH4 at low temperature, respectively. These reactions finally resulted in the characterization of σ-H2 and σ-silane complexes, however, no σ-methane complex was observed even at low temperature (Scheme 1). Scheme 1 In order to realize highly eletrophilic metal complexes, a chelating fluorinated phosphine ligand 1,2-bis-(pentafluorophenylphosphino)ethane, (C6F5)2PCH2CH2P(C6F5)2 (dfppe) was employed and the synthesis and structural characterization of a series of new, Ru(II) hydride complexes [RuH(P(OMe)3)(bpy)(dfppe)][OTf], cis-[RuH2(dfppe)(PPh3)2] and [RuH(CO)Cl(PPh3)(dfppe)] were accomplished. Protonation reaction of the hydride complexes [RuH(P(OMe)3)(bpy)(dfppe)][OTf] (Scheme 2) and [RuH(CO)Cl(PPh3)(dfppe)] (Scheme 3) with HOTf at low temperature gave free H2 and five-coordinate species [Ru(P(OMe)3)(bpy)(dfppe)][OTf]2 and [Ru(CO)Cl(PPh3)(dfppe)][OTf], respectively. Surprisingly, in all these reactions, dihydrogen complexes are formed which were unobservable in which the H2 ligand was found to be highly labile. Reaction of is-[Ru(bpy)(dfppe)(OH2)(P(OMe)3)][OTf]2 with H2 however, resulted in the heterolytic activation of the H–H bond and concomitant protonation of H2O to give the corresponding hydride complex cis-[Ru(H)(bpy)(dfppe)(P(OMe)3)][OTf] and H3O+ (Scheme 2) . Scheme 2 Scheme 3 In an attempt to prepare insoluble molecular clusters in order to realize σ-bond activation under heterogeneous conditions, we studied the reactivity of highly electrophilic [Ru(P(OH)3)(dppe)2]2+ (dppe = (C6H5)2PCH2CH2P(C6H5)2) complex with various metal acetates. Usage of Zn(OAc)2.2H2O afforded a novel [Ru2(dppe)4P2(OH)2O4Zn2(OAc)(DMP)(OTf)][OTf]2 (Ru-Zn ) soluble bimetallic complex (Scheme 4) which was characterized in detail by NMR and single crystal X-ray crystallography. To achieve the expected insoluble molecular cluster further studies are required to tune the electronics and the sterics around the phosphorous acid moiety. Scheme 4
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