Thermal And Optical Properties Of Ge-Se Glass Matrix Doped With Te, Bi And Pb
During the last few years the scientific interest in chalcogenides glasses has been provoked on account of their properties and new application possibilities. These materials exhibit electrical and optical properties, which make them useful for several potential applications. Specifically the threshold and memory switching behavior and the infrared transmission of many of these glasses make the materials to be well suitable for use in memory devices and in fiber optics. Multicomponent glasses have been found to be more useful for many of these applications since the properties could be tailored for the specific uses. On account of this there has been great deal of interest in recent years in understanding the composition dependent variations of physical properties in these glasses. Models based on network topology and chemical ordering have been proposed to explain the composition dependence of physical properties. The Chemically Ordered Covalent Network (COCN) model is one of the best efforts put forth in this subject. This model predicts distinctive physical properties of these glasses for compositions at which there is a maximum number of heteropolar bonds. A physical model based on changes in network topology with composition has been proposed recently. This model predicts the rigidity to percolate in the network at the mean coordination number <r> = 2.40. This critical value of <r> at which the rigidity percolates is called the mechanical threshold or the rigidity percolation threshold. One more argument based on medium range interactions, existing in these glassy networks, suggests that the mechanical threshold should occur at <r> = 2.67. A general lack of consensus in the existing experimental reports on the mechanical threshold in some chalcogenides glasses prevents one from identifying the correct threshold value of <r>. A systematic study of the composition dependence of glasses with a large glass-forming region is necessary to resolve this controversy. The correct threshold value of <r> and the reason for the departure from this value in the other cases is the first step towards verifying the applicability of this model to chalcogenide glasses. Glasses belonging to IV — V — VI groups are natural candidates for this study because of their large glass forming region. It also seems possible to isolate the chemical threshold from interfering with the mechanical threshold in some of these glasses. In device applications of any semiconductor the optical and the electrical band gaps need to be varied and this is commonly done by doping. The large density of valence alteration pairs and intrinsic disorder of amorphous semiconductors counter-balances the effects of external additives. As a result, it is hard to electrically dope these materials. Non-equilibrium experimental techniques have been used to some extent, but one of the limitations is that they are confined to the thin film state. The finding that p to n type conduction sign changes can be induced by Bi and Pb in bulk Ge-M (M= S, Se and Te) glasses has therefore created special interest. This thesis deals with Ge-Se glass matrix doped with Te, Bi and Pb. The optical, thermal and electrical properties have been studied. The present thesis work is arranged in several chapters. The basic introduction of chalcogenide glasses is given in chapter one. This includes an introduction to chalcogenide glasses followed by a brief discussion on the important structural models, the possible defects in chalcogenide glasses and the electrical, optical and thermal properties of chalcogenide glasses. The second chapter discusses the experimental techniques used in the present investigations. The basic principles and theory behind the experiments, the experimental setup and the experimental procedure leading to the determination of the physical properties are given here. These include information about Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Photo acoustic (PA) spectroscopy and Photoluminescence studies. In the third chapter the experimental investigations on Ge-Se-Te glasses are presented. The chapter starts with the preparation and characterization of these glasses. It then gives an account of the earlier studies on Ge-Se-Te glasses that are relevant to the present work. The results of the DSC and PA studies are discussed in the following two sections. In the systems with Gex Se80-x Te20 and Gex Se75.x Te25, glasses with less than 20 at. % of Ge do not show any crystallization peak due to Se rich content. But Te and Ge-rich glasses show strong crystallization tendency. The composition dependence of Tg of this glassy system gives an evidence for the occurrence of the topological threshold or mechanical threshold at <r> = 2.40 and chemical threshold at <r> = 2.67. These can be explained on the basis of COCN model. The optical band gap and thermal diffusivity studies also show anomalous behavior at <r> = 2.40 and <r> = 2.67. The experimental results on Ge-Se-Te glasses are summarized in the last section of this chapter. The investigations on Bi doped Ge-Se and Ge-Se-Te glasses are given in the fourth chapter. The chapter starts with a brief introduction of preparation, characterization and a short review of earlier work. In PA studies the anomalous behavior is observed in thermal diffusivity and thermal diffusion length plot at 8-9 at. % of Bi doping of the Ge-Se and Ge-Se-Te glasses where the conduction changes from p to n type. These results are explained on the basis of percolation model and the formation of Bi2Se3 microcrystalline phase. Finally these results are summarized at the end of the chapter. The fifth chapter is devoted to the investigations on Pb doped Ge-Se glasses. It is arranged in five sections; preparation and characterization, earlier work, Photo acoustic and Photoluminescence studies. In PA studies the composition dependence of thermal diffusivity show anomalous behavior at x =F 9 at % of Pb in Pbx Ge42-x Sesg glasses and y = 21 at. % of Ge in Pb2o Gey Seso-y glasses where the conduction changes from p to n type. After that it reaches the maximum. After the conduction sign changes the conductivity increases with addition of respective Pb and Ge concentration in both series of glasses, which is reflected in thermal diffusivity value also. The results have been explained on the basis of COCN model. From PL studies, the PL intensity is high in un-doped Ge42 Scss glasses. With the addition of Pb into Ge-Se system the PL intensity goes down drastically up to 9 at. % of Pb, beyond 9 at. % the PL intensity is approximately the same up to 15 at. %. In the last section the results are summarized. Chapter six summarizes the essential features of the work reported in the thesis. These conclusions are drawn from the present and the earlier reported studies on Ge-Se-Te glasses, Bi doped Ge-Se and Ge-Se-Te glasses and Pb doped Ge-Se glasses. Finally based on the present experimental results, some future work has been suggested which could throw some light on a better understanding of/? to n transition and defects state of these glasses. It is worth extending the microscopic phase separation studies in these glasses. Highly sensitive experimental techniques are needed in this regard. Also some simulation work like Monte-Carlo simulation and Molecular dynamics simulation needs to be undertaken for understanding the microscopic phase separation and the role of defects in carrier type reversal in these glassy materials. All the references cited in the thesis are collected and listed at the end of the thesis.
- Physics (PHY)