Thiophene Derivative Photovoltaics : Device Fabrication, Optimization and Study of Charge Transport Characteristics
In the recent years area organic photovoltaics is generating a lot of interests because whole process of synthesis and fabrication is less energy intensive process as well as it is cost effective compared to conventional inorganic Si based photovoltaic technology. This work mainly deals with the fabrication and optimization of device fabrication conditions for organic photovoltaic materials. In first part of the work, the solar cell fabrication conditions were optimized for the commonly used system P3HT – PCBM. The fabricated device was optimized for the solvents used for the active material, concentration of the active material solution, donor- acceptor ratio of the active material, annealing conditions of the active layer and the metal evaporation conditions for the cathode. All the optimization procedures were carried out in controlled atmosphere to minimize the environmental effect inference during fabrication of the solar cell devices. All the characterization was carried out at ambient conditions. The efficiency of the solar cell was improved from 0.009% to 6.2%. the environmental stability of the fabricated devices were carried out after encapsulating it with epoxy based resin in both ambient conditions as well as extreme conditions like 85% RH at 25°C inside the humidity chamber. It was observed that both the data matches well with each other indicating proper encapsulation required to safe guard the device for the better performance over the period of time. Second part of this work mainly deals with understanding the structure property relationship of thiophene based donor- acceptor- donor molecule 2,5-dithienyl-3,4-(1,8-naphthylene) cyclopentadienone (DTCPA), which is highly crystalline, low band gap organic molecule which absorbs over entire visible region of the solar spectra. DTCPA crystals of various morphologies were prepared by various recrystallization routes. It was observed that macro scale morphology of these crystals differs from each other. Also depending on the method of recrystallization sizes of the crystals also varies. All the recrystallized DTCPA shows strong orientation toward (001) direction. However, it was observed that lattice parameters of these crystals slightly differ from each other owing to the recrystallization methodology. These variations in crystal parameters are more than 0.02 which is significant. It was also observed that the crystallite sizes depend on the recrystallization routes. Slow evaporation of concentrated solution (SEC) grown crystals has the larger crystallite size of 170nm. It was observed that absorption range of these crystals slightly differ from each other owing to the change in the crystallite sizes and crystal parameters. Third part of this work deals with the fabrication and optimization of thermal evaporation process of DTCPA for photovoltaic applications. DTCPA is stable at higher temperatures as well as has sharp melting point which make it ideal candidate for thermal evaporation. In this work films of DTCPA were fabricated for various evaporation rates by thermal evaporation technique. Chemical integrity of the molecules upon evaporation is found to be intact as observed from FTIR spectroscopy. XRD shows that at lower (25 W/m2) as well as higher (40 W/m2) films are oriented to (001), (400) as well as (311) directions, at 30 W/m2 and 35 W/m2 there is a strong orientation towards (311) and (001) directions respectively. Photo luminescence studies indicate that there is strong 410 nm emission for films deposited at the power of 25 W/m2 and 40 W/m2. Microscopic studies confirm that morphology is dependent on the deposition rates as it changes with the change in deposition rate. This in turn reflects in the device characteristics of these films. It was observed that films deposited at high deposition rates show better device characteristics with high VOC and current density values. All these device fabrication and characterizations were carried out in ambient conditions. Fourth part of this work deals with P3HT - DTCPA composites which exhibit wide range of light absorption. It was observed that DTCPA act as nucleating centers for the P3HT molecules and increases crystallinity in the composite. Furthermore, DTCPA helps in exciton separation because of donor and acceptor moieties present in the molecule. It also helps in charge transportation because of its crystalline nature and further it induces molecular ordering in the P3HT matrix. The band diagram of P3HT- DTCPA suggests that the band edges of both materials are ideal for charge separation. In addition, crystalline nature of the DTCPA molecule helps in effective charge transportation. J-V characteristics shows that there is large built in potential in the devices from these blends leading to large Voc. Composites with lower DTCPA loadings show higher efficiency than with higher loadings. These devices were prepared in ambient conditions and needs to be optimized for obtaining better device properties. In the fifth part of the work two types of system were studied to understand the band edge matching on the photovoltaic properties, carbazole based copolymers and DTCPA based copolymers. In the case of carbazole based copolymers it was observed that by copolymerizing carbazole with thiophene based derivatives lowers the band gap and modifies the HOMO and LUMO levels for better suit for the photovoltaic device fabrication. It was observed that that is two orders of improvements in the efficiency by co polymerizing carbazole with benzothiodizole as improves the JSC and VOC. Also the copolymerization of carbazole with both benzothiodiazole and bithiophene results in better light harvesting as the optical band gap was lowered. In the case of DTCPA copolymers with DTBT and DHTBT as both are random copolymers the solubility was low as well as their HOMO band edge was mismatched with the PEDOT: PSS which is a hole transport layer. However, the alternate polymerization of DTCPA with DTBT improved the band edge matching and also the solubility. As a result there was tenfold improvement in the charge collection and hence the efficiency was improved from 0.02% to 2.4%. Many of the conducting polymers have good material property but poor filmability. In the sixth part of this work deals with fabrication of device quality films by alternate deposition technique like pulsed laser deposition. Two types of system were studied in this work (i) polypyrrole- MWCNT nanocomposites and (ii) Poly DTCPA polymer. In both the cases it was observed that chemical integrity of the polymer retained during ablation. PolyDTCPA films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition by both IR (Nd-YAG) and UV (KrF) laser source. Morphological studies indicate that IR laser ablated films were particulate in nature whereas UV laser ablated films were grown as continuous layers as polyDTCPA absorbs better in UV region. As a result the IV characteristics indicate that IR laser ablated films are resistive in nature and UV laser ablated films are good rectifiers indicating the suitability of the process for fabrication of device quality films.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Banavoth, Murali (2018-04-06)Inexhaustible solar energy, which provides a clean, economic and green energy, seems to be an alternative solution, for current and future energy demands. Harvesting solar energy presents a challenge in using eco-friendly, ...
Sharmila, S (2017-07-10)Photovoltaic cells are a promising solution to the current energy crisis. Among the different photovoltaic cell technologies developed, dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are emerging as viable low-cost alternatives to Si ...
Integrability Evaluation Methodology for Building Integrated Photovoltaic's (BIPV) : A Study in Indian Climatic Conditions Eranki, Gayathri Aaditya (2018-01-02)India’s geographical location renders it with ample solar-energy potential ranging from 4-7 kWh/m2 daily and 2,300–3,200 sunshine hours annually. The diverse nature of human settlements (scattered low-rise to dense high-rise) ...