Sensitivity of Sea Surface Temperature Intraseasonal Oscillation to Diurnal Atmospheric Forcings in an OGCM
MetadataShow full item record
Abstract The diurnal cycle is a dominant mode of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in trop-ical oceans, that influences air-sea interaction and climate processes. Diurnal variability of SST generally ranges from ~0.1 to 2.0◦C and is controlled by atmospheric fluxes of heat and momentum. In the present study, the response of intraseasonal variability (ISV) of SST in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) to diurnal atmospheric forcings, during the summer monsoon of 2007, has been examined using an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM). The model is based on the Modular Ocean Model Version 4 (MOM4p0), having a horizontal resolution of 0.25◦ and 40 vertical levels, with a fine resolution of 5 m in the upper 60 m. Numerical experiments were conducted by forcing the model with daily and hourly atmospheric forcings to examine the SST-ISV modulation with the diurnal cycle. Additional experiments were performed to determine the relative role of diurnal cycle in solar radiation and winds on SST and mixed layer depth (MLD). Since salinity, which is decisive in SST variability, varies meridionally in the BoB, two locations were selected for analyses: one in the northern bay at 89◦E, 19◦N where salinity is lower and the other in the southern bay at 90◦E, 8◦N where salinity is higher, as well as observations are available from Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) buoy for comparision with model simulation. Diurnal atmospheric forcings modify SST-ISV in both southern and northern bay. SST-ISV in the southern bay, is dominantly controlled by the diurnal cycle of insolation, while in the northern bay, diurnal cycle of insolation and winds have comparable contribution. Diurnal cycle enhanced the amplitude of 3 selected intraseasonal events in the southern bay and 3 out of the 6 events in the northern bay, during the study period. In the southern bay, simulated SST variability with hourly forcing was closer to the observations from RAMA, implying that incorporating the diurnal cycle in model forcing rectifies SST-ISV. Moreover, SST obtained with diurnal forcing consists of additional fluctuations at higher frequencies within and in between intraseasonal events; such fluctuations are absent with daily forcing. The diurnal variability of SST is significant during the warming phase of intraseasonal events and reduces during the cooling phase. Diurnal amplitude of SST decreases with depth; depth dependence also being larger during the warming phase. SST-ISV modulation with diurnal forcing results from the diurnal cycle of upper ocean heat fluxes and vertical mixing. Diurnal warming and cooling result in a net gain or loss of heat in the mixed layer after a day’s cycle. When the retention (loss) of heat in the mixed layer increases with diurnal forcing during the warming (cooling) phase of intraseasonal events, the daily mean SST rise (fall) becomes higher, amplifying the intraseasonal warming (cooling). In the southern bay, SST-ISV amplification is mainly controlled by the diurnal variability of MLD, which modifies the heat fluxes. Increased intraseasonal warming with diurnal forcing results from the increase in radiative heating, due to the shoaling of the daytime mixed layer. Amplified intraseasonal cooling is dominantly con-trolled by the strengthening of sub-surface processes, due to the nocturnal deepening of mixed layer and increased temperature gradients below the mixed layer. In the northern bay, SST-ISV modulation with diurnal forcing is not as large as that in the southern bay. The mean increase in SST-ISV amplitudes with diurnal forcing is ~0.16◦C in the southern bay, while it is only ~0.03◦C in the northern bay. Reduced response of SST-ISV to diurnal forcings in the northern bay is related to the weaker diurnal variability of MLD. Salinity stratification limits diurnal variability of mixed layer in the northern bay, unlike in the southern bay. The seasonal (June - September) mean diurnal amplitude of MLD is ~15 m in the southern bay, while it is reduced to ~1.5 m in the northern bay. Diurnal variability of MLD, spanning only a few meters is not sufficient to create large modifications in mixed layer heat fluxes and SST-ISV in the northern bay. The vertical resolution of the model limits the shallowing of mixed layer to 7.5 m, thus restricting the diurnal variability of simulated MLD.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Das, Umasankar (2018-06-11)Around Sri Lanka and to the south of India sea surface temperatures (SST) are cooler compared to the surrounding region during summer monsoon. This region where SSTs are relatively cooler is known as the cold pool. Owing ...
Arunchandra, S C (2009-05-21)Atmospheric convection is sensitive to the nature of the surface and its temperature. Both dry (without cloud) and moist (with cloud) convections depend on the surface temperature. Surface temperature is of critical ...
Hameed, Saji N (2012-11-08)