Study of Droplet Dynamics in Heated Environment
Droplets as precursor are extensively applied in diverse fields of science and engineering. Various contributions are provided previously towards analysis of single phase and multi-phase droplets of single and multiple components. This thesis describes modelling of multi-phase (nano fluid) droplet vaporization. The evaporation of liquid phase along with migration of dispersed particles in two-dimensional plane within droplet is detailed using the governing transport equations along with the appropriate boundary and interface conditions. The evaporation model is incorporated with aggregate kinetics to study agglomeration among nano silica particles in base water. Agglomeration model based on population balance approach is used to track down the aggregation kinetics of nano particles in the droplet. With the simulated model it is able to predict different types of final structure of the aggregates formed as observed in experimental results available in literature. High spatial resolution in terms of agglomeration dynamics is achieved using current model. Comparison based study of aggregation dynamics is done by heating droplet in convective environment as well as with radiations and using different combination of heating and physical parameters. The effect of internal flow field is also analysed with comparative study using levitation and without levitation individually. For levitation, droplet is stabilized in an acoustic standing wave. It is also attempted to study the transformation of cerium nitrate to ceria in droplets when heated under different environmental conditions. Reaction kinetics based on modified rate equation is modelled along with vaporization in aqueous cerium nitrate droplet. The thermo physical changes within the droplet along with dissociation reaction is analysed under different modes of heating. The chemical conversion of cerium nitrate to ceria during the process is predicted using Kramers' reaction velocity equation in a modified form. The model is able to explain the kinetics behind formation of ceria within droplet at low temperatures. Transformation of chemical species is observed to be influenced by temperature and configuration of the system. Reaction based model along with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation within the droplet is able to determine the rate of chemical dissociation of species and predict formation of ceria within the droplet. The prediction shows good agreement with experimental data which are obtained from literature.
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