Development of Efficient Computational Methods for Better Estimation of Optical Properties in Diffuse Optical Tomography
Ravi Prasad, K J
MetadataShow full item record
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is one of the promising imaging modalities that pro- vides functional information of the soft biological tissues in-vivo, such as breast and brain tissues. The near infrared (NIR) light (600-1000 nm) is the interrogating radiation, which is typically delivered and collected using fiber bundles placed on the boundary of the tissue. The internal optical property distribution is estimated via model-based image reconstruction algorithm using these limited boundary measurements. Image reconstruction problem in DOT is known to be non-linear, ill-posed, and some times under-determined due to the multiple scattering of NIR light in the tissue. Solving this inverse problem requires regularization to obtain meaningful results, with Tikhonov-type regularization being the most popular one. The choice of the regularization parameter dictates the reconstructed optical image quality and is typically chosen empirically or based on prior experience. An automated method for optimal selection of regularization parameter that is based on regularized minimal residual method (MRM) is proposed and is compared with the traditional generalized cross-validation method. The results obtained using numerical and gelatin phantom data indicate that the MRM-based method is capable of providing the optimal regularization parameter. A new approach that can easily incorporate any generic penalty function into the diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction is introduced to show the utility of non-quadratic penalty functions. The penalty functions that were used include, quadratic (`2), absolute (`1), Cauchy, and Geman-McClure. The regularization parameter in each of these cases were obtained automatically using the generalized cross-validation (GCV) method. The reconstruction results were systematically compared with each other via utilization of quantitative metrics, such as relative error and Pearson correlation. The reconstruction results indicate that while quadratic penalty may be able to provide better separation between two closely spaced targets, it's contrast recovery capability is limited and the sparseness promoting penalties, such as `1, Cauchy, Geman-McClure have better utility in reconstructing high-contrast and complex-shaped targets with Geman-McClure penalty being the most optimal one. Effective usage of image guidance by incorporating the refractive index (RI) variation in computational modeling of light propagation in tissue is investigated to assess its impact on optical-property estimation. With the aid of realistic patient breast three-dimensional models, the variation in RI for different regions of tissue under investigation is shown to influence the estimation of optical properties in image-guided diffuse optical tomography (IG-DOT) using numerical simulations. It is also shown that by assuming identical RI for all regions of tissue would lead to erroneous estimation of optical properties. The a priori knowledge of the RI for the segmented regions of tissue in IG-DOT, which is difficult to obtain for the in vivo cases, leads to more accurate estimates of optical properties. Even inclusion of approximated RI values, obtained from the literature, for the regions of tissue resulted in better estimates of optical properties, with values comparable to that of having the correct knowledge of RI for different regions of tissue. Image reconstruction in IG-DOT procedure involves reduction of the number of optical parameters to be reconstructed equal to the number of distinct regions identified in the structural information provided by the traditional imaging modality. This makes the image reconstruction problem to be well-determined compared to traditional under- determined case. Still, the methods that are deployed in this case are same as the one used for traditional diffuse optical image reconstruction, which involves regularization term as well as computation of the Jacobian. A gradient-free Nelder-Mead simplex method was proposed here to perform the image reconstruction procedure and shown to be providing solutions that are closely matching with ones obtained using established methods. The proposed method also has the distinctive advantage of being more efficient due to being regularization free, involving only repeated forward calculations.
- Mathematics (MA) 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Experimental And Theoretical Studies Towards The Development Of A Direct 3-D Diffuse Optical Tomographic Imaging System Biswas, Samir Kumar (2014-06-02)Diffuse Optical Tomography is a diagnostic imaging modality where optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index distributions are recovered to form the internal tissue ...
Development and Validation of Analytical Models for Diffuse Fluorescence Spectroscopy/Imaging in Regular Geometries Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan Ram (2018-03-15)New advances in computational modeling and instrumentation in the past decade has enabled the use of electromagnetic radiation for non-invasive monitoring of the physio-logical state of biological tissues. The near infrared ...
Development of Novel Reconstruction Methods Based on l1--Minimization for Near Infrared Diffuse Optical Tomography Shaw, Calbvin B (2018-03-03)Diffuse optical tomography uses near infrared (NIR) light as the probing media to recover the distributions of tissue optical properties. It has a potential to become an adjunct imaging modality for breast and brain imaging, ...