A Study of Supramolecular Gels and Self Assembly of Novel Bile Acid Conjugates
Chapter 1: Functional and Responsive Supramolecular Gels In this chapter ‘supramolecular gels’ derived from small organic molecules with molecular mass of typically less than 2000 daltons are discussed. Representative examples of various low molecular weight gelators based on their natural availability and also divergent functionalities are mentioned (Scheme 1). Scheme 1 Advances in the recent years have been very rapid in the field of supramolecular chemistry of gels giving rise to ‘Tunable responsive gels’. Control of the gel property in a reversible fashion has been the highlight of responsive gels. A few of the gels which are responsive towards various stimuli such as pH, photoirradiation, cations, anions, neutral species have been discussed. Advances and scope of supramolecular gels in various applications have also been mentioned in detail with respective examples. Utilities of supramolecular gels in synthesis of nanostructures, in biology and medicine, enzyme recognition, catalysis etc are discussed. (Scheme 2). Chapter 2: Charge transfer triggered organogels of bis(bile acid)anthracene conjugates and 2,4.7-trinitrofluorenone. In this chapter the study involves the synthesis of a special class of anthracene based steroidal derivatives. The appending of two amphiphilic bile acid units imparts a unique hydrophobic/ hydrophilic balance on the chromophore. The 2,3-didecyloxyanthracene (DDOA) was reported to be a gelator of various organic solvents but none of the three bile acid derivatives of anthracene synthesized was a gelator on its own. It was also observed that dialkoxy (propyl, heptyl, decyl) derivatives of anthracene formed strong charge-transfer gels in the presence of 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF). The addition of electron deficient TNF to the steroidal derivatives of anthracene resulted in the gelation of some specific organic solvents. The driving force behind the gel formation resulted from the charge-transfer (CT) interaction between the electron rich anthracene and electron deficient fluorenone. Figure 1. Chemical structures of 2,3-bis(bile acid)anthracenes and TNF (centre), a scanning electronic microscopy image of xerogels prepared from bis(deoxycholyl)anthracene and TNF (left) and a photograph of the gel of bis(deoxycholyl)anthracene and TNF in n-octanol. Thermochromic property (during sol to gel phase transition), absorption and variable temperature fluorescence measurements supported CT interaction. Thermal stability studies and dynamic rheology experiments confirmed that CT gels were thermally most stable and mechanically stronger with equi-molar amounts of the two components. Stiffness values obtained from rheological experiments also suggested that the gels were viscoelastic solids. Chapter 3(A): Tb(III) sensitization in an organogel matrix: Selective luminescence quenching by an aromatic nitro derivative In this chapter the discovery of metallo organogel formation by mixing methanolic solutions of Tb(OAc)3 and sodium deoxycholate (NaDCh) has been explored. Sensitization of Tb3+ was observed by doping micromolar quantities of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN). Mechanical properties of Tb3+-DCh gels were investigated by rheology at three different ratios of Tb3+ and DCh. It was observed that increasing in the Tb3+ to DCh ratio increased the mechanical property of the gels. Time delayed emission spectra were recorded with increasing concentration of DHN and luminescence increase was noticed in a linear fashion. Importance of gel matrix was demonstrated by measuring the Tb3+ luminescence at fixed concentration (5 mM) with/without DHN in the solution and gel media. Figure 2:: Schematic representation of Tb3+ sensitization by DHN. Photograph (right)) of the Tb3++-DCh (5/15 mM) gels with (a) 50 µM DHHN (b) No DHHN under UVV (365 nm). Sensitization by an electron rich chromophore created interest in us to dope relatively electron deficient compounds into the gel matrix for possible quenching off Tb3+-luminescence. Among the electron deficient analytes screened included 1,5-difluro-2,4-diinitrobenzenne (DFDNB)), 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNPPh), p-nitrobenzaldehydde (p-NB), 2,4,6-trinitrootoluene (TTNT) and 22,4,7¬trinitrofluuorenone (TTNF). Microscopy studies such as AFM, TEMM and SEMM revealed highly entangled fibrous network in the morphology of Tb3+--DCh xerogel. Solid state luminescence experiments suggested that sensiitization was observed in the xerogels and extent of sensitization was comparable to that of the gel state. Xerogel soaking studies inferred the strong adherence of the DHNN to the gel fibres. Chapter 3(B): Anion dependent structural, morphological and mechanical features of Ln(III)-Cholate gels In this chapter the counter anion influence on various aspects of hydrogels has been discussed. It has been reported from our laboratory that mixing of aqueous solutions of sodium cholate (15 mM) and various lanthanide acetates (5 mM) followed by sonication resulted in either transparent or transluscent gels. Unsurprisingly we found that aqueous solutions of lanthanide nitrates and lanthanide chlorides also formed hydrogels upon mixing with sodium cholate (Figure 33). Dried films of Tb3++-cholate and Eu3+-cholate gels prepared from their respective nitrate salts displayed birefringent structures under polarizing optical microscopy (POM). But no significant textures of any type were observed in the case of gels prepared from either chloride or acetate salts. Figure 3:: Photographs of the hydrogels prepared by mixing of aqueous solutions of various salts Tb33+ and Eu3+ with sodium cholate solutions. Scanning electron microscopic images exhibited fibrous structures for all the xerogels in the morphology. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed helical morphology for xerogels prepared from nitrate salts where as flat tape-like cross linkage was observed for chloride or acetate based xerogels. Anion effect on mechanical properties was significant in the sense that gels prepared from acetate salts displayed highest mechanical strength followed by nitrate based gels which were stronger than that of chloride based gels. Titration of sodium cholate solution with various lanthanide salt solutions gave the direct evidence of thee pH variation as a function of the anions. Figure 4: TEM images of xerogels prepared from gels of nitrate salts of Tb3+ (left) and Eu3+ (right) Chapter 4: Design, synthesis a nd study of bile acid ‘click’ conjugates of perylene bisimides (PBIs) and naphthalene bisimides (NBIs) In this chapter the synthesis of novel bile acid derivatives of perylene and naphthalene bisimides is discussed. The ‘click’ chemistry procedure was used to link bile acid groups on to the chromophores. Azide derivatives of PBIs and NBIs were prepared inn 3 step methods which were coupled to propargyl esters of bile acids by following standard ‘click chemistry’ protocols to achieve the target molecules (Scheme 3). Scheme 3 The studies conducted mainly focused on Cholic acid (CA) conjugates of PBIs and NBIs. Steady state absorption and emission studies of CA conjugates were performed in 10% MeOH/DCM system. POM and fluorescence images showed red emissive aggregates in case of PBI films. TEM measurements revealed uniform aggregate sizes for both the films of PBI(CA)2 and NBI(CA)2. SEM and AFM (Fig 5) studies exhibited spherical aggregates of diameter around 100-200 nm for PBI(CA)2 films where as aggregates of diameter around 500-700 nm were observed for NBI(CA)2 films. Figure 5: AFM images and their corresponding height profiles of PBI films (left) and NBI films (right)
- Organic Chemistry (OC) 
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