Exploration of Real and Complex Dispesion Realtionship of Nanomaterials for Next Generation Transistor Applications
Ghosh, Ram Krishna
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Technology scaling beyond Moore’s law demands cutting-edge solutions of the gate length scaling in sub-10 nm regime for low power high speed operations. Recently SOI technology has received considerable attention, however manufacturable solutions in sub-10 nm technologies are not yet known for future nanoelectronics. Therefore, to continue scalinginsub-10 nm region, new one(1D) and two dimensional(2D) “nano-materials” and engineering are expected to keep its pace. However, significant challenges must be overcome for nano-material properties in carrier transport to be useful in future silicon nanotechnology. Thus, it is very important to understand and modulate their electronic band structure and transport properties for low power nanoelectronics applications. This thesis tries to provide solutions for some problems in this area. In recent times, one dimensional Silicon nanowire has emerged as a building block for the next generation nano-electronic devices as it can accommodate multiple gate transistor architecture with excellent electrostatic integrity. However as the experimental study of various energy band parameters at the nanoscale regime is extremely challenging, usually one relies on the atomic level simulations, the results of which are at par with the experimental observations. Two such parameters are the band gap and effective mass, which are of pioneer importance for the understanding of the current transport mechanism. Although there exists a large number of empirical relations of the band gap in relaxed Silicon nanowire, however there is a growing demand for the development of a physics based analytical model to standardize different energy band parameters which particularly demands its application in TCAD software for predicting different electrical characteristics of novel devices and its strained counterpart to increase the device characteristics significantly without changing the device architecture. In the first part of this work reports the analytical modeling of energy band gap and electron transport effective mass of relaxed and strained Silicon nanowires in various crystallographic directions for future nanoelectronics. The technology scaling of gate length in beyond Moore’s law devices also demands the SOI body thickness, TSi0 which is essentially very challenging task in nano-device engineering. To overcome this circumstance, two dimensional crystals in atomically thin layered materials have found great attention for future nanolectronics device applications. Graphene, one layer of Graphite, is such 2D materials which have found potentiality in high speed nanoelectronics applications due to its several unique electronic properties. However, the zero band gap in pure Graphene makes it limited in switching device or transistor applications. Thus, opening and tailoring a band gap has become a highly pursued topic in recent graphene research. The second part of this work reports atomistic simulation based real and complex band structure properties Graphene-Boron nitride heterobilayer and Boron Nitride embedded Graphene nanoribbons which can improve the grapheme and its nanoribbon band structure properties without changing their originality. This part also reports the direct band-to-band tunneling phenomena through the complex band structures and their applications in tunnel field effect transistors(TFETs) which has emerged as a strong candidate for next generation low-stand by power(LSTP) applications due to its sub-60mV/dec Sub threshold slope(SS). As the direct band-to-band tunneling(BTBT) is improbable in Silicon(either its bulk or nanowire form), it is difficult to achieve superior TFET characteristics(i.e., very low SS and high ON cur-rent) from the Silicon TFETs. Whereas, it is explored that much high ON current and very low subthreshold slope in hybrid Graphene based TFET characteristics open a new prospect in future TFETs. The investigations on ultrathin body materials also call for a need to explore new 2D materials with finite band gap and their various nanostructures for future nanoelectronic applications in order to replace conventional Silicon. In the third part of this report, we have investigated the electronic and dielectric properties of semiconducting layered Transition metal dichalcogenide materials (MX2)(M=Mo, W;X =S, Se, Te) which has recently emerged as a promising alternative to Si as channel materials for CMOS devices. Five layered MX2 materials(exceptWTe2)in their 2D sheet and 1D nanoribbon forms are considered to study the real and imaginary band structure of thoseMX2 materials by atomistic simulations. Studying the complex dispersion properties, it is shown that all the five MX2 support direct BTBT in their monolayer sheet forms and offer an average ON current and subthresholdslopeof150 A/mand4 mV/dec, respectively. However, onlytheMoTe2 support direct BTBT in its nanoribbon form, whereas the direct BTBT possibility in MoS2 and MoSe2 depends on the number of layers or applied uniaxial strain. WX2 nanoribbons are shown to be non-suitable for efficient TFET operation. Reasonably high tunneling current in these MX2 shows that these can take advantage over conventional Silicon in future tunnel field effect transistor applications.