Investigations on Photophysical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (CdxHg1-xTe,Ag2S) and their Interactions with Graphene Oxide, Organic Polymer Composites
Jagtap, Amardeep M
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The motivation of this thesis is to understand the physical properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and to get insight on the basic physics of charge separation in composites made from QDs with graphene oxide (GO)/organic semiconductors. The flexion phonon interactions is one of fundamental issues in solid state physics, which has a significant effect on both electrical and optical properties of solid state materials. This thesis investigates the physical properties of aqueous grown QDs through exciton-phonon coupling and non-radiative relaxation of excited carriers which have been carried out by temperature dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. Several e orts have been made in order to understand the basic physics of photo induced charge separation in the hybrid systems made from QDs with graphene oxide and organic semiconductors. Investigations on the photoconductivity of the devices made from these hybrid composites have been carried out keeping the motive of its application in nanotechnology. This thesis work is presented in six chapters inclusive of summary and directions for future work. Chapter 1 discusses the background knowledge and information of the general properties of semiconductor nanostructures, QDs and their hybrid nanocomposites. Chapter 2 deals with the sample preparation and experimental techniques used in this thesis. Chapter 3 elaborates the exciton-phonon scattering and nonradiative relaxations of excited carriers in visible emitting cadmium telluride QDs with help of temperature and size dependent photoluminescence. Chapter 4 presents the investigations on time resolved photoluminescence dynamics and temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of near infrared (NIR) emitting mercury cadmium telluride (CdHgTe). Chapter 5 discusses the importance of NIR emitting silver sulphide (Ag2S) QDs and gives insight of nonradiative recombinations through defect/trap states. Chapter 6 investigates the excited state interactions between CdHgTe QDs and GO. Chapter 7 focuses on the understanding of basic physics of charge separation/transfer between poly (3hexylthiophene) and Ag2S QDs. Chapter 1: Semiconductor nanostructures have attracted significant scientific attention due to their fundamental physical properties and technological interests. Quasi zero dimensional nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) have shown unique optical and electrical properties compared to its bulk counterpart. These QDs show discrete energy levels due to the quantum confinement effect hence known as arti cial atoms. Large surface to volume ratio in these QDs is expected to play a crucial role in determing the photo-physical properties. Temperature dependent photoluminescence is a powerful tool for understanding the role of the large surface area on exciton recombination process in QDs. Inorganic QDs combined with different materials like graphene oxide or organic semiconductors forms an exciting class of synthetic materials which integrates the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors. It is quite important to understand the basic physics of electronic interactions in these composites for its future application in many elds. Chapter 2: Synthesis of the inorganic QDs, graphene oxide, composites and fabrication of devices is an important and integral part of this thesis. Hydrothermal and three necked ask technique is adopted to get highly dispersible colloidal quantum dots in solvents. Synthesis of graphene oxide from graphite through oxidation and ultrasonication has been carried out to obtain homogenous dispersed graphene oxide in water. Structural properties have been studied by techniques like X ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphological properties are studied by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties are investigated by absorption spectroscopy, steady state and time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Photoconductivity characteristics are analyzed to understand the basics of enhanced current in the various devices made from QDs composites. Chapter 3:Investigations on exciton phonon coupling and nonradiative relaxations in various sizes of visible light emitting cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs size have been presented. Due to the large surface area, QDs are prone to have defect/trap states which can affect the exciton relaxation. Hence, understanding the role of such defect/trap states on photoluminescence is very essential for achieving the optimum optical properties. Temperature dependent (15 300 K) photoluminescence has been used to understand nonradiative relaxation of excited carriers. Thermally activated processes and multiple phonons scattering is thoroughly investigated to understand the quenching of photoluminescence with temperature. The strength of exciton-phonon coupling is investigated which determines the variation in energy bandgap of QDs with temperature. Role of exciton phonon scattering is also discussed to understand the basic physics of photoluminescence line width broadening in QDs. Chapter 4 and 5: This part of thesis focuses on the size and temperature pho-toluminescence properties of near infra red emitting ternary alloyed CdHgTe and Ag2S QDs. Near infrared emitting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant scientific and technological interests due to their potential applications in the fields of photosensor, solar energy harvesting cells, telecommunication and biological tissue imaging etc. Structural and photophysical properties of CdHgTe QDs have been analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X rayphotoelectron microscopy, photoluminescence decay kinetics and low temperature photoluminescence. Investigations on the nonradiative recombinations through trap/defects states and exciton phonon coupling are carried out in colloidal Ag 2S QDs which emits in the range of 1065 1260 nm. Particularly, the photoluminescence quenching mechanism with increasing temperature is analyzed in the presence of multiple nonradiative relaxation channels, where the excited carriers are thermally stimulated to the surface defect/trap states of QDs. Chapter 6 and 7: The aim of these chapters is to understand the basic physics of photo induced charge separation in the hybrid systems made from the inorganic QDs with graphene oxide and organic semiconductors. In chapter 6, CdHgTe QDs are decorated on graphene oxide sheets through physisorption. The excited state electronic interactions have been studied by optical and electrical characterizations in these CdHgTe QDs GO hybrid systems. In chapter 7, investigations are carried out for understanding the basic physics of charge separation in the composites of Ag2S QDs and poly (3hexylthiophene 2,5 diyl)(P3HT). These composites of inorganic organic materials are made by simple mixing with help of ultrasonication technique. Steady state and time resolved photoluminescence measurements are used as powerful technique to gain insight of energy/charge transfer process between P3HT and Ag2S QDs. Furthermore, investigations have been carried out on the photoconductivity of the devices made from these hybrid composites keeping the motive of its application in nanotechnology. Chapter 8: The conclusions of the work presented in this thesis are coherently summarized in this chapter. Thoughts and prospective for future directions are also summed up.
- Physics (PHY) 
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