Repair and Retrofit Strategies for Structural Concrete against Thermo-Mechanical Loadings
Guruprasad, Y K
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Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) structures have become an important aspect in most of the buildings in our society around the world. Most of the multistoried reinforced concrete buildings house important institutions such as hospitals, schools, government establishments, defense establishments, business centers, sports stadiums, super markets and nuclear power plants. The cost of construction of such multistoried RCC structures is very high, and these structures need to be maintained and restored based on their functionality and importance using repair and retrofit strategies when these structures undergo damage. The steps involved in restoring RCC structures that have damages using repair / retrofit measures consists of identifying the source or cause of damage, assessment of the degree or extent of damage that has taken place using nondestructive techniques. Based on the assessment of degree of damage suitable repair / retrofit strategy using the appropriate repair material is applied to achieve the required load carrying capacity or strength. The present work involves assessing the efficacy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) based system applied on pre-damaged structural members to restore the member’s strength and stiffness through experimental investigations and finite element predictions. To validate the macrolevel properties of predamaged concrete micromechanical analysis, microscale studies and analytical investigations have been conducted. Plain and reinforced concrete test specimens: cylinders, square prisms and rectangular prisms having 25MPa and 35MPa cylinder compressive strengths pre-damaged due to mechanical (monotonic and cyclic loading) and thermal loading (exposure to different temperature and time durations) with applications of CFRP repair subjected to compression is investigated to study the behavior and enhancement in the compressive strength and stiffness after application of repair. Non destructive testing of thermally damaged concrete (exposed to different temperature and exposure time) is conducted using ultrasonic pulse velocity and tomography methods to understand the degradation in the strength and stiffness of thermally damaged concrete. The results of the non destructive testing helps in assessing the amount of repair that can be applied. To validate the macro scale behavior of thermally damaged concrete micro scale studies was performed adopting micro indentation, petrography, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM) and Electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). During the event of a fire in RC structures which have been retrofitted. The high temperature caused due to fire tends to make the concrete to deteriorate and the repair material to delaminate. Loss of strength/ stiffness in concrete and delamination of the repair material in a retrofitted structural component in a structure causes instability which results in partial collapse or complete collapse of the structure. Thermal insulation of concrete and the repair material (CFRP) using geo-polymer mortar and simwool thermal fibre blanket exposed to high temperature and different exposure time are experimentally investigated. This is to evaluate the effectiveness of the thermal insulation in protecting epoxy based structural repair material(CFRP) from thermal damage and to minimize the delamination of the repair material when exposed to high temperatures. Slender columns when loaded eccentrically fail at a load much lesser than their actual load carrying capacity. In RC buildings where additional floors need to be added, in those situations slender columns which are already eccentrically loaded tend to get damaged or fail due to additional load which act on them. Therefore to restore such columns experimental and finite element investigations on reinforced concrete slender columns having 25MPa cylinder compressive strength subjected to eccentric monotonic compressive loading with applications of CFRP repair is studied to understand the behavior and the enhancement in load carrying capacity after application of repair. Experimental investigations are conducted to study fracture and fatigue properties of thermally damaged concrete geometrically similar notched plain and reinforced concrete beams having 25MPa cylinder compressive strength exposed to different combinations of temperature and durations with application of repair (CFRP). Nonlinear fracture parameters of thermally damaged concrete is computed which help in understanding the fracture behavior of thermally damaged concrete and application of repair. Effectiveness of CFRP repair and failure behaviour of these beams are studied when these thermally damaged notch concrete beams are subjected to monotonic and cyclic (fatigue) loading. Reinforced concrete slender beams when subjected to unexpected loads such as earthquakes get damaged. The increase in load carrying capacity and fatigue life of reinforced concrete slender beams having 25MPa cylinder compressive strength in flexure subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading with applications of CFRP repair is investigated using experimental and finite element investigations. Finite element analysis of concrete specimens pre-damaged due to mechanical (monotonic and cyclic loading) / thermal loading (exposure to different temperature and time durations) with applications of CFRP repair and assessment of amount of repair required is investigated. Analytical (empirical) models are developed to assess the mechanical properties of concrete (elastic moduli, compressive strength and split tensile strength) exposed to different temperatures and time durations. Nonlinear fracture parameters of geometrically similar plain concrete notch beams exposed to different temperature and time durations are determined. Fracture parameters (stress intensity factor) of thermally damaged plain and reinforced concrete notched beams with application of CFRP have been determined. Effect of size and shape of thermally damaged plain concrete compression members with application of CFRP wrap have been studied. Crack mouth opening displacements (CMOD), strains and crack lengths of thermally damaged plain concrete (PC) notched beams using digital image correlation has also been determined.
- Civil Engineering (CiE) 
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