Enantiospecific Total Synthesis of Indole Alkaloids Eburnamonine, Aspidospermidine, Quebrachamine, Henrycinols A and B and Synthesis of Azepino [4,5 -b] Indolones
Nidhiry, John Eugene
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The thesis entitled “Enantiospecific total synthesis of indole alkaloids eburnamonine, aspidospermidine, quebrachamine, henrycinols A and B and synthesis of azepino[4,5-b]indolones” is divided into three chapters. In the first chapter, a unified strategy for the enantiospecific total synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (+)-eburnamonine (1), (–)-aspidospermidine (2) and (–)-quebrachamine (3) is described. The chiral pool synthesis commenced with (S)-ethyl lactate 4, which was elaborated to the allylic alcohol 5. Johnson-Claisen orthoester rearrangement of the allylic alcohol 5 furnished the key chiral building block 6 possessing a quaternary stereogenic center. Pictet-Spengler cyclization of tryptamine with the corresponding aldehydes obtained by appropriate functionalization of the chiral building block 6 and ring closing metathesis were the key reactions employed en route the total synthesis of the indole alkaloids 1–3 (Scheme 1). Scheme 1. Unified strategy for the synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (+)-eburnamonine (1), (–)-aspidospermidine (2) and (–)-quebrachamine (3). The second chapter of the thesis pertains to the synthesis of azepino[4,5-b]indolones 7 via Brønsted acid mediated intramolecular cyclization of unsaturated tryptamides 8. Various ,-unsaturated acids 9 derived from different -hydroxy esters 10, were converted to the corresponding unsaturated tryptamides 8 and subjected to the optimized reaction conditions. The results of the study indicated that -substituted unsaturated secondary tryptamides derived from (S)-ethyl lactate were the most effective in undergoing an intramolecular cyclization to furnish the corresponding azepino[4,5-b]indolones 7, possessing a quaternary stereogenic center in good yields. The presence of an alkenyl moiety in the quaternary center allowed the functionalization of these compounds and was subsequently employed to access the ABCD core 11 of tronocarpine and the tetracyclic cores 12 of some iboga alkaloids. The loss of chirality in the formation of the azepino[4,5-b]indolones indicated that the reaction proceeds predominantly by an SN1 pathway. During the course of the study an interesting formation of an azonino[5,4-b]indolone 13 by a competing SN1 pathway and a tetracyclic azepino[4,5-b]indolone 14 via a cascade cyclization were noticed (Scheme 2). Scheme 2. Synthesis of azepino[4,5-b]indolones 7 possessing a quaternary stereogenic center. The first total synthesis of two new indole alkaloids, henrycinols A (15) and B (16) which were isolated from the plant Melodinus henryi CRAIB is described in the third chapter of the thesis. The key reaction in the synthetic sequence is the Pictet-Spengler cyclization of L-tryptophan methyl ester 17a and the aldehyde 18 derived from D-tartaric acid which leads to the installation of all the stereogenic centers present in the natural products. Interestingly, a switch in the diastereoselectivity of the reaction was observed by varying the substituent on the amine in L-tryptophan methyl ester 17. When L-tryptophan methyl ester 17b possessing an N-allyl substitution was employed, the desired 1,3-trans tetrahydro--carboline 19b could be obtained in good yields, which was subsequently elaborated to the natural products 15 and 16 (Scheme 3). Scheme 3. Total synthesis of henrycinols A (15) and B (16).
- Organic Chemistry (OC) 
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