Experimental Studies on Shock-Shock Interactions in Hypersonic Shock Tunnels
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Shock-shock interactions are among the most basic gas-dynamic problem, and are almost unavoidable in any high speed light, where shock waves generating from different sources crosses each other paths. These interactions when present very close to the solid surface lead to very high pressure and thermal loads on the surface. The related practical problem is that experienced at the cowl lip of a scramjet engine, where the interfering shock waves leads to high heat transfer rates which may also lead to the damage of the material. The classification by Edney (1968) on the shock-shock interaction patterns based on the visualization has since then served the basis for such studies. Though the problem of high heating on the surface in the vicinity of the shock-shock interactions has been studied at length at supersonic Mach numbers, the study on the topic at the hypersonic Mach numbers is little sparse. Even in the studies at hypersonic Mach numbers, the high speeds are not simulated, which is the measure of the kinetic energy of the ow. Very few experimental studies have addressed this problem by simulating the energy content of the ow. Also, some of the numerical studies on the shock-shock interactions suggest the presence of unsteadiness in the shock-shock interaction patterns as observed by Edney (1968), though this observation is not made very clearly in the experimental studies undertaken so far. In the present study, experiments are carried out in a conventional shock tunnel at Mach number of 5.62 (total enthalpy of 1.07 MJ/kg; freestream velocity of 1361 m/s), with the objective of mapping the surface pressure distribution and surface convective heat transfer rate distribution on the hemispherical body in the presence of the shock-shock interactions. A shock generator which is basically a wedge of angle = 25 , is placed at some dis-dance in front of the hemispherical body such that the planar oblique shock wave from the shock generator hits the bow shock wave in front of the hemi-spherical body. The relative distance between the wedge tip and the nose of the hemispherical body is allowed to change in di erent experiments to capture the whole realm of shock-shock interaction by making the planar oblique shock wave interact with the bow shock wave at different locations along its trajectory. The study results in a bulk of data for the surface pressure and heat transfer rates which were obtained by placing 5 kulites pressure transducers, 1 PCB pressure transducer and 21 platinum thin lm gauges along the surface of the hemispherical body in a plane normal to the freestream velocity direction. Along with the measurement of the surface pressure and the surface heat transfer rates, the schlieren visualization is carried out to capture the shock waves, expansion fans, slip lines, present in a certain shock-shock interaction pattern and the measured values were correlated with the captured schlieren images to evaluate the ow build up and steady and useful test time thereby helping in understanding the ow physics in the presence of the shock-shock interactions. From the present study it has been observed that in the presence of Edney Type-I and Edney Type-II interaction, the heat transfer rates on the hemi-spherical body are symmetrical about the centerline of the body, with the peak heating at the centerline which drops towards the shoulder. For Edney Type-III, Edney Type-IV, Edney Type-V and Edney Type-VI interaction pattern, the distribution in not symmetrical and shifts in peak heat transfer rates being on the side of the hemispherical from which planar oblique shock wave is incident. Also, it is observed that for the interactions which appear within the sonic circle, Edney Type-III and Edney Type-IV, the heat transfer rates observe an unsteadiness, such that the gauges located close to the interaction region experiencing varying heat transfer rates during the useful test time of the shock tunnel. Few experiments were conducted at Mach 8.36 (total enthalpy of 1.29 MJ/kg; freestream velocity of 1555.25 m/s) and Mach 10.14 (total enthalpy of 2.67 MJ/kg; freestream velocity of 2258.51 m/s) for the con gurations representing Edney Type-III interaction pattern to further evaluate the unsteady nature observed at Mach 5.62 ows. The unsteadiness was evident in both the cases. It is realized that the short test times in the shock tunnels pose a constraint in the study of unsteady flow fields, and the use of tailored mode operation of shock tunnel can alleviate this constraint. Also, limited number of experiments in the present study, which are carried out in a Free Piston Shock Tunnel, helps to understand the need to conduct such study in high enthalpy test conditions.
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