Quantum Simulations by NMR : Applications to Small Spin Chains and Ising Spin Systems
Rao, K Rama Koteswara
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Quantum simulations, where controllable quantum systems are used to simulate other quantum systems, originally proposed by Richard Feynman, are one of the most remarkable applications of quantum information science. Compared to computation, quantum simulations require much less number of qubits for the m to be practical. In the work described in this thesis, we have performed a few quantum simulations of small quantum systems using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) techniques. These simulations have been used to experimentally demonstrate the underlying interesting quantum protocols. All the experiments presented have been carried out using liquid-state or liquid crystal NMR. Numerical pulse optimization techniques have been utilized in some of the experiments, to achieve better control over the spin systems. The first chapter contains “Introduction” to quantum information processing, NMR, and numerical pulse optimization techniques. In chapter 2, we describe quantum simulation of a 3-spin Heisenberg-XY spin chain having only nearest neighbour interactions. Recently, spin chains having pre-engineered short-range interactions have been proposed to efficiently transfer quantum information between different parts of a quantum information processor. Other important proposals involving these spin chains include generating entangled states and universal quantum computation. However, such engineered interactions do not occur naturally in any system. In such a scenario, the experimental viability of these proposals can be tested by simulating the spin chains in other controllable quantum systems. In this work, we ﬁrst theoretically study the time evolution of bipartite and tripartite entanglement measures for a 3-spin open ended XY spin chain. Then, by simulating the XY interactions in a 3-spin nuclear spin system, we experimentally generate, (i)a bipartite maximally(pseudo-)entangled state(Bell state) between end qubits, and(ii) multipartite(pseudo-)entangled states(Wand GHZ states),starting from separable pseudo-pure states. Bell state has been generated by using only the natural unitary evolution of the XY spin chain. W-state and GHZ-state have been generated by applying a single-qubit rotation to the second qubit, and a global rotation of all the three qubits respectively after the unitary evolution of the spin chain. In chapter 3, we simulate a 3-spin quantum transverse Ising spin system in a triangular configuration, and show that multipartite quantum correlations can be used to distinguish between the frustrated and non-frustrated regimes in the ground state of this spin system. The ground state of the spin system has been prepared by using adiabatic state preparation method. Gradient ascent pulse engineering technique has been utilized to efficiently realize the adiabatic evolution of the spin system. To analyse the experimental ground state of the system, we employ two different multipartite quantum correlation measures, generated from monogamy studies of bipartite quantum correlations. Chapter 4 contains a digital quantum simulation of the mirror inversion propagator corresponding to the time evolution of an XY spin chain. This simulation has been used to experimentally demonstrate the mirror inversion of quantum states, proposed by Albanese et al.[Phys.Rev.Lett.93,230502(2004)], by which entangled states can be transferred from one end of the chain to the other end. The experiments have been performed in a 5-qubit dipolar coupled nuclear spin system. For simulation, we make use of the recently proposed unitary operator decomposition algorithm along with the numerical pulse optimization techniques, which assisted in achieving high experimental fidelities. Chapter 5 contains a digital quantum simulation of the unitary propagator of a transverse Ising spin chain, which has been used to experimentally demonstrate the perfect state transfer protocol of Di Franco et al. [Phys.Rev.Lett.101,230502(2008)]. The importance of this protocol arises due to the fact that it achieves perfect state transfer from one end of the chain to the other end without the necessity of initializing the intermediate spins of the chain, whereas most of the previously proposed protocols require initialization. The experiments have been performed in a 3-spin nuclear spin system. The simulation has also been used to demonstrate the generation of a GHZ state.
- Physics (PHY) 
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