Biomimetic Studies on Tyrosine- and Phenolate- Based Ligands and their Metal Complexes
Tyrosine (4-hydroxyphenylalanine) is one of the naturally occurring 22 amino acids. The importance of tyrosine is due to the presence of its phenolic side chain. In biological systems, the tyrosyl residue in proteins is found to be sulfated, phosphorylated and nitrated. Upon oxidation with dioxygenases, Tyr residue forms dopaquinone which undergoes a series of reactions ultimately leading to the formation of melanin. Tyr is also a precursor to neurotransmitters (catechol amines namely dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and thyroid harmones T4 and T3. Tyr residue is also found to be cross linked with other amino acid residues in the active site of certain proteins. Tyr-Tyr cross link has also been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Tyr residue in proteins has been targeted widely for site selective modifications. A series of chemical modifications like acylation, allylation, ene-type reaction, iodination with radiolabeled iodine, formation of Tyr-Tyr cross link with oxidants and aminoalkylation have been carried out on surface exposed Tyr residues in proteins. Apart from these chemical modifications of Tyr on protein surface, a couple of free Tyr-based scaffolds have also been developed for different applications. Similar to tyrosine-based scaffolds, several phenolate-based scaffolds have also been developed for various applications. Several phenolate-based binuclear metal complexes have been developed as mimics of the active site of metalloenzymes. Moreover, by varying the substituent in the phenolate scaffold, the redox properties of metal bound in these systems can be tuned. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter gives general idea about tyrosine-and phenolate-based scaffolds. The first chapter also gives introduction to zinc(II)-containing enzymes metallo-β-lactamases (mβls) and phosphotriesterase (PTE) and their functional mimics. The importance of copper(II)-containing enzyme, catechol oxidase and its mimics has also been discussed. The significance and formation of o-dityrosine (Tyr-Tyr cross link) has also been briefly discussed. In chapters 2 and 3, a couple of phenolate-based ligands and their corresponding zinc(II)- and copper(II)- complexes have been synthesized and have been checked as mimics of zinc(II)-containing enzymes (mβl and PTE) and copper-containing enzyme catechol oxidase, respectively. In chapter 4, a series of tyrosine-based ligands have been designed and their in situ copper(II) complexes have been tested as mimics of catechol oxidase. In chapter 5, the effect of neighboring amino acid in the formation of Tyr-Tyr cross link has been studied. In chapter 2, a couple of zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and studied as mimic of zinc(II)-containing enzymes mβl and PTE. Metallo-β-lactamases (mβls) are zinc(II)-containing enzymes which exist in both mono- and binuclear forms. Mβls are capable of hydrolyzing β-lactam ring in antibiotics and make them inactive (Scheme 1(A)). To date, an effective inhibitor for this enzyme is not known. Hence, in order to understand the nature of the enzyme a couple of synthetic mimics are known. However, in most of the synthetic mimics both the metal ions are in symmetrical environment. Therefore, we have attempted to design a few unsymmetrical phenolate- based ligands and their zinc(II) complexes. The unsymmetrical phenolate-based ligands HL1 and HL2 have been synthesized by sequential mannich reaction with formaldehyde and two different amines. Complexes 1 and 2 are obtained from ligands HL1 and HL2, respectively (Figure 1). For comparative purpose, the symmetrical ligands HL3 and HL4, and their zinc(II)-complexes 3 and 4 have been synthesized by reported procedures (Figure 1). The efficiency of the complexes 1-4 towards the hydrolysis of oxacillin has been studied. It has been observed that the binuclear zinc(II) complexes with metal-bound water molecule 1 and 4 are able to hydrolyze oxacillin at much faster rates compared to that of mononuclear complexes 2 and 3. However, between 1 and 4, there is no appreciable change in activity, indicating that the slight change in ligand environment has no significant role. PTE is a binuclear zinc(II)-containing enzyme, capable of hydrolyzing toxic organphosphotriesters to less toxic diesters (Scheme 1(B)). As the binuclear active site of mβl is comparable with that of phosphotriesterase (PTE), PTE activity of complexes 1-4 has been studied. Although the binuclear zinc(II)-complexes 1 and 4 are able to hydrolyze PNPDPP (p-nitrophenyl diphenyl phosphate) initially, these complexes are not able to effect complete hydrolysis. This is due to the inhibition of complexes 1 and 4 by hydrolyzed product, diester. However with mononuclear complexes 2 and 3 no such inhibitions is possible, and are capable of hydrolyzing PNPDPP at comparatively faster rates than 1 and 4. Scheme 1. Function of metallo-β-lactamase and phosphotriesterase. (A) Hydrolysis of β-lactam ring in antibiotics by metallo-β-lactamase. (B) Hydrolysis of organophosphotriesters to diesters by phosphotriesterase. Figure 1. Chemical structures of ligands HL1-HL4 and their corresponding zinc(II)complexes 1-4. In chapter 3, a couple of copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and their catechol oxidase activity has been studied. Catechol oxidase belongs to the class of oxidoreductase and it catalyzes the oxidation of a wide range of o-diphenols to o-quinones through the reduction of molecular oxygen to water (Scheme 2). A four new µ4-oxo-bridged tetranuclear copper(II) complexes (5-8) have been synthesized (Figure 2). The ability of these complexes to catalyze the oxidation of 3,5-DTBC (3,5-Di-tert-butylcatechol) to 3,5-DTBQ (3,5-Di-tert-butylquinone) has been studied. A detailed kinetic study has been carried out which reveals that the complexes with exogenous acetate ligands (5 and 6) are better catechol oxidase mimics compared to complexes with exogenous chloride ligands (7 and 8). This observation is due to the labile nature of acetate compared to chloride, as the displacement of exogenous ligand is essential for the binding of substrate to the catalyst. Based on mass spectral analysis a plausible mechanism has been proposed for the oxidation of 3,5-DTBC by these complexes. Scheme 2. Oxidation of catechol by catechol oxidase. Figure 2. Chemical structures of copper(II) complexes 5-8. In chapter 4, by following the analogy between phenol and tyrosine, a series of binucleating ligands of tyrosine or tyrosyl dipeptides (Figures 3 and 4) have been synthesized by Mannich reaction under mild conditions. The in situ complexation of these fifteen new binucleating ligands (HL5-HL19) with copper(II) chloride has been observed. In situ complexation was followed by UV-visible and mass spectral analysis. These in situ complexes were able to oxidize 3,5-DTBC at slower rate compared to that of the tetranuclear complexes reported in chapter 3. The catecholase activity has also been tested with the addition of base. A slight enhancement in activity of in situ complexes has been observed in the presence of base. Based on mass spectral evidences, a plausible mechanism for the oxidation of catechol by these in situ complexes has been proposed. Figure 3. Binucleating ligands (Mannich bases) of boc-protected tyrosine and tyrosyl dipeptides. Figure 4. Binucleating ligands (Mannich bases) of boc-deprotected tyrosyl dipeptides. In chapter 5 of the thesis, the effect of neighboring amino acid residue in the formation of o,o-dityrosine (Tyr-Tyr cross link) has been studied. o,o’-Dityrosine is a specific marker for oxidative/nitrosative stress. The increase in concentration of dityrosine is associated with several disease states. A detailed study has been carried out in order to find out the effect of neighboring amino acid residues in the rate of formation of dityrosine of several tyrosyl dipeptides. The formation of dityrosine has been carried out with horseradish peroxidase(HRP) and H2O2 (Scheme 3). Except Cys-Tyr, all other tyrosyl dipeptides, form corresponding dityrosine with HRP/ H2O2. With Cys-Tyr, the formation of corresponding disulfide is observed. The appreciably higher rate of dityrosine formation of Phe-Tyr is attributed to the presence of strong hydrophobic environment around the active site of HRP. Among the polar tyrosyl peptides, the positively charged peptides (Arg-Tyr, Lys-Tyr) undergo dityrosine formation at much faster rate compared to that of negatively charged dipepptides (Asp-Tyr, Glu-Tyr). This trend is in accordance with the pKa of neighboring amino acid residues. The positively charged neighboring residues with higher pKa stabilizes ionized tyrosine, hence the rate of dityrosine formation is higher for them. As positively charged neighboring residue enhances the rate of dityrosine formation, the effect of externally added L-Arg has been studied. A coupling of a few biologically relevant tyrosine derivatives has been studied. The derivatives in which one of the ortho-positions of tyrosine is blocked, does not undergo coupling under the experimental conditions employed. Scheme 3. Formation of dityrosine of Ile-Tyr from Ile-Tyr in the presence of H2O2 catalyzed by HRP. (For structural formula and figures pl refer the abstract pdf file)
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