Large Area Electronics with Fluids : Field Effect on 2-D Fluid Ribbons for Desalination And Energy Harvesting
This work studies the influence of field effect on large area 2 dimensional ribbons of fluids. A fluid of choice is confined in the channel of a metal-insulator-channel-insulator-metal architecture and is subjected to constant (d.c) or alternating (a.c) fields (de-pending on the application) along with a pressure drive flow. A general fluid would be composed of molecules having certain polarizability and be a dispersion of non-ionic and ionic particulates. The field effect response under pressure driven flow for this fluid would result in electrophoresis, electro osmosis, dielectrophoresis, dipole-dipole interaction and inverse electro osmosis phenomena. Using some of these phenomena we study applications related to desalination and energy harvesting with saline water as the ex-ample fluid for the former case, and solution processed poly vinyldene fluoride (PVDF) for the latter case. The geometrical features of \large area" and the \ribbon shape" can be taken advantage of to influence the design and performance for both applications. With regards to desalination, it is shown via experiments and theoretical models that the presence of alternating electric fields aid in ion separation along the flow when the saline water is subjected to laminar flow. Moreover, the power consumption is low due to the presence of the insulator. An average of 30% ion removal efficiency and 15% throughput is observed in the systems fabricated. Both performance parameters are discussion can be improved upon with larger channel lengths. The \2-D ribbon" and alternating field effect aid in achieving this by patterning the randomly distributed ions in the bulk into a smooth sheet charge and then repelling this sheet charge back into the bulk. The electric field exhibited by this sheet charge helps trap more ion sheets near the interface, thereby converting a surface ion trapping phenomena (when d.c is used) to a bulk phenomena and thereby improving efficiency. With regards to energy harvesting, a solution of PVDF in methyl ethyl ketone and 1-methyl-2-pyrollidone is confined to the \2-D ribbon" geometry and subject to high d.c fields. This aids in combining the fabrication, patterning and poling process for PVDF into one setup. Since the shape of the ribbon is defined by the shape of the channel, the ribbons (straight or serrated) can be used to sense forces of various magnitudes. More importantly experiments and theoretical models are studied for energy harvesting. Since the ribbon geometry defines the resonant frequency, large PVDF ribbon can be used to harvest energy from low frequency vibrations. Experiments show that up to 60 microwatt power can be harvested at 200 Hz and is sufficient to supplement the power for ICs.
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