Partial Slip Contacts in Linear Viscoelasticity
Dayalan, Satish Kumar
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This work analyzes partial slip contact problems in the theory of linear viscoelasticity using both the semi-analytical method and nite element method. Such problems arise in metal-polymer contacts in orthopedic implants and similar applications. The boundary conditions of such problems are inherently mixed and vary with time, thus restricting the use of classical correspondence principle, which have been the basic approach for most of the solved problems in viscoelasticity. In the present semi-analytical approach, the governing equations for the vis-coelastic partial-slip contact are formulated as a pair of coupled Singular Integral Equations (SIEs) for a pin-plate geometry using the viscoelastic analogues of Green's functions. The formulation is entirely in the time-domain, avoiding Laplace transforms. Both Coulomb and hysteretic e ects are considered, and arbitrary load histories, including the bidirectional pin loads and remote plate stresses, are allowed. Moreover, the contact patch is allowed to advance and recede with no restrictions. The presence of viscoelastic behavior necessitates the application of the stick zone boundary condition in convolved form, and also introduces additional convolved gap terms in the governing equations, which are not present in the elastic case. Transient, as well as steady-state contact tractions, are obtained under load-hold, unload-hold, unload-reload, cyclic bidirectional (fretting) and remote plate loading for a three-element delayed elastic solid. A wide range of loads, loading rates, friction coeficients and the conforming nature of the contact are considered. The contact size, stick-zone size, indenter approach, maximum pressure, Coulomb energy dissipation are tracked during fretting. The edge-of-contact stresses and the subsurface stresses for the viscoelastic plate due to the contact tractions are determined by solving an equivalent traction boundary value problem. It is found that the viscoelastic fretting contact tractions for materials with delayed elastic nature shakedown just like their elastic counterparts. However, the number of cycles to attain shakedown states is strongly dependent on the ratio of the load cycle time to the relaxation time constant of the viscoelastic material. In monotonic load-hold case, the viscoelastic steady-state tractions agree well with the tractions from an equivalent elastic analysis using the shear modulus at infinite time. Whereas, the viscoelastic fretting tractions in shakedown differ considerably from their elastic counterparts. This is due to the fact that the contact patch does not increase monotonically in fretting-type(cyclic) loading. Hence, an approximate elastic analysis misleads to an incorrect edge-of-contact stresses. During fretting, the edge-of-contact hoop stress also shakedown and reaches its peak value at the trailing edge-of-contact when the horizontal pin load reaches its maximum. Moreover, the peak tensile of the edge-of-contact hoop stress increases with the increase in the Coulomb friction coefficient. In cyclic loading, Coulomb dissipation in a cycle at steady-state is almost independent of the rate at which the load is cycled. However, the viscous energy dissipated in a cycle is a strong function of the ratio of the load cycle time to the relaxation time constant. The steady-state cyclic hysteretic energy dissipation typically dominates the cyclic Coulomb dissipation, with a more pronounced difference at slower load cycling. However, despite this, it is essential to model an accurate viscoelastic fretting contacts including the effects of both viscous and Coulomb friction dissipation to obtain accurate contact stresses. A 12-element generalized Maxwell solid with long time scales representing a well characterized viscoelastic material like PMMA is also studied. The material chosen is of slowly relaxing nature and the ratio of the instantaneous shear modulus(G0) to the modulus at the infinite time(G1) is almost equal to 1000. In such cases, the material is effectively always in a transient state, with no steady edge-of-contact. As a consequence, the location of the peak hoop stress keeps on shifting when the load cycle is repeated. Interestingly, the rate at which the viscoelastic material relaxes affects the contact tractions. It is observed that the rapidly relaxing materials show qualitatively different tractions in the partial slip, with local traction spikes close to the edges-of-contact and concomitant high-stress gradients. On the other hand, finite element method is also used to analyze the partial slip viscoelastic contacts. In FEA, the pin-plate geometry is modeled using a custom mesh maker, where a 2D-continuum plane strain element is used for the plate and rigid element for the pin. The technique uses 'ABAQUS Standard' solver to solve the contact problem. Finite element analysis for a wide range of loads comparable with the SIE technique is performed. The tractions and contact sizes for various load cases such as unload-reload, fretting-type cyclic loads from both SIE and FEA agrees well. In certain conditions, there exist multiple contact arcs or stick zones that are currently difficult to solve with SIE's. However, such problems are treated using FEA and one such problem is illustrated.
- Civil Engineering (CiE) 
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