Investigation On Ag And ZnO Based Nanohybrids As Bactericides For The Purification Of Water And Elucidation Of Possible Mechanisms For Their Bio-activity
Chapter I: This chapter briefly gives an introduction about microorganisms, their varieties, growth, reproduction etc. In particular, about bacterial function. A sincere attempt is made to review this briefly, including an account of the studies already reported in the literature. Chapter II deals with the antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film on Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Candida albicans (C. albicans). In particular, films were repeatedly cycled for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/agar film was found to be in the order, C. albicans > E. coli > S. aureus. Chapter III describes the synthesis of Ag@AgI NPs in agarose matrix. A detailed antibacterial studies including repetitive cycles are carried out on E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. EPR and TEM studies are carried out on the Ag@AgI/Agarose and the bacteria, respectively, to elucidate a possible mechanism for killing of the bacteria. The hybrid could be recycled for the antibacterial activity many times and is found to be non toxic towards human cervical cancer cell (HeLa cells). Chapter IV reports the antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) deposited alternatively layer by layer (LBL) on chitosan polymer in the form of a thin film over a quartz plate and stainless steel strip against E. coli. AFM studies are carried out on the microbe to know the morphological changes affected by the hybrid film. The hybrid films on aging (3 months) are found to be as bioactive as before. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated good biocompatibility. Chapter V describes the fabrication of carbon foam porous electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-Ag nanocomposites. The device can perform sterilization by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of just one 1.5V battery with very little power consumption. Chapter VI Here we have studied in particular a property say the influence of surface defect in the production of ROS by ZnO NPs and in turn the bactericide activity. Secondly, a homogeneous ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanohybrid has been synthesized by employing chitosan as mediator. The synergistic antibacterial effect of ZnO/Ag nanohybrid on bacteria is found to be more effective, compared to the individual components (ZnO and Ag). A possible mechanism has been proposed for the death of bacteria by ZnO/Ag nanohybrid, based on EPR studies and TEM studies.