Energy Efficient Scheme Using Handshaking For Broadcast In A Wireless Ad Hoc Network
Sathya Prakash, K R
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The applications of ad hoc wireless networks envisaged in this thesis are those related to issues of disaster management, rehabilitation, security and defense. The circumstances in such situations warrants the deployment of a quick ad hoc network that is simple and uses minimum resoures to get started. The communication within the network has to be reliable and it has to be simple so that it can be deployed in extremely compex topography and other climatic conditions. Since large batteries cannot be assumed to be at our disposal for the sake of communication at all the times, energy conservation by way of energy efficient schemes is a paramount issue. Ad hoc wireless networks are broadcast networks by nature. For all the communications, transmissions by the nodes are broadcast into the air. A networkwide broadcast is distinguished from this. When a node wants its data to reach all the other nodes in the network then it initiates a networkwide broadcast. There may be nodes in the network that are not directly reachable by the node that wants to do a networkwide broadcast. Networkwide broadcast is used by ad hoc wireless networks for routing protocols, updating of network status information, network organization and multicasting. Most importantly, the applications envisaged out of this thesis need all their data communication as networkwide broadcast alone. In an ad hoc wireless network, a networkwide broadcast is usually effected by the flooding mechanism, which is inherently inefficient, since all the nodes in the network have to transmit the same information. It is possible to exploit the topology of the network in such a way, that only a few of the nodes need to transmit the information to complete a networkwide broadcast. The thesis deals with a new scheme for a networkwide broadcast implemented in the media access control (MAC) layer of an ad hoc wireless network. The new scheme is developed by extending the concept of handshaking signals used in unicast, to the networkwide broadcast scenario. In the case of unicast, where there is an intended recipient, handshaking is done for reliability and happens through the RTS and CTS packets. This idea is extended to suit the networkwide broadcast scenario and the consequences are discussed in detail in the thesis. Intuitively, adding more packets for handshaking increases the number of bytes transmitted. But the results obtained are interesting, since the network transmits fewer bytes per networkwide broadcast, on an average, with the newly proposed scheme. A comparison is done with the implementation of simple flooding following the IEEE 802.11 standard. These results have been demonstrated by simulations. The average improvement is nearly 2.5 times reduction in the number of bytes transmitted per networkwide broadcast. The performance of a networkwide broadcast in an ad hoc wireless network is usually affected badly by losses due to transmssion error in the medium. In a medium with errors, persistence improves reliability. This reliability helps in bringing robustness. The advantage of the proposed scheme is that it uses the idea of persistence to ensure the networkwide broadcast reachabilityto be almost independent of transmission error rate. The MAC layer ensures that the broadcast packet reaches each and every node that is connected to the node that initiates the etworkwide broadcast. The effects of collision are also overcome. Our simulations establish that the scheme works correctly, and gives good performance.
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