Irreducible Representations Of The Symmetric Group And The General Linear Group
Representation theory is the study of abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations or matrices. It provides a bridge between the abstract symbolic mathematics and its explicit applications in nearly every branch of mathematics. Combinatorial representation theory aims to use combinatorial objects to model representations, thus answering questions in this ﬁeld combinatorially. Combinatorial objects are used to help describe, count and generate representations. This has led to a rich symbiotic relationship where combinatorics has helped answer algebraic questions and algebraic techniques have helped answer combinatorial questions. In this thesis we discuss the representation theory of the symmetric group and the general linear group. The theory of these two families of groups is often considered the corner stone of combinatorial representation theory. Results and techniques arising from the study of these groups have been successfully generalized to a very wide class of groups. An overview of some of the generalizations can be found in [BR99]. There are also many avenues for further generalizations which are currently being explored. The constructions of the Specht and Schur modules that we discuss here use the concept of Young tableaux. Young tableaux are combinatorial objects that were introduced by the Reverend Alfred Young, a mathematician at Cambridge University, in 1901. In 1903, Georg Frobenius applied them to the study of the symmetric group. Since then, they have been found to play an important role in the study of symmetric functions, representation theory of the symmetric and complex general linear groups and Schubert calculus of Grassmannians. Applications of Young tableaux to other branches of mathematics are still being discovered. When drawing and labelling Young tableaux there are a few conﬂicting conventions in the literature, throughout this thesis we shall be following the English notation. In chapter 1 we shall make a few deﬁnitions and state some results which will be used in this thesis. In chapter 2 we discuss the representations of the symmetric group. In this chapter we deﬁne the Specht modules and prove that they describe all the irreducible representations of Sn. We conclude with a discussion about the ring of Sn representations which is used to prove some identities of Specht modules. In chapter 3 we discuss the representations of the general linear group. In this chapter we deﬁne the Schur modules and prove that they describe all the irreducible rational representations of GLmC. We also show that the set of tableaux forms an indexing set for a basis of the Schur modules. In chapter 4 we describe a relation between the Specht and Schur modules. This is a corollary to the more general Schur-Weyl duality, an overview of which can be found in [BR99]. The appendix contains the code and screen-shots of two computer programs that were written as part of this thesis. The programs have been written in C++ and the data structures have been implemented using the Standard Template Library. The ﬁrst program gives us information about the representations of Sn for a given n. For a user deﬁned n it will list all the Specht modules corresponding to that n, their dimensions and the standard tableaux corresponding to their basis elements. The second program gives information about a certain representation of GLmC. For a user deﬁned m and λ it gives the dimension and the semistandard tableaux corresponding to the basis elements of the Schur module Eλ .
- Mathematics (MA)