Complex Network-Function-Loci For Localization Of Discrete Change In Transformer Windings
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Large capacity high voltage power transformers are one of the most expensive items of equipment in an electrical power network. Power utilities can ill-afford breakdown of transformers, especially, in a deregulated scenario. The consequences of such a failure are well known. Under these circumstances, utilities have figured-out that condition-based monitoring and diagnosis is worth pursuing, in spite of increased expenditure. Thus, monitoring and diagnosis is an integral part of operation and maintenance. Mechanical forces generated during short-circuits is the main cause leading to displacement/deformation of windings. Frequency response measurements have attained worldwide acceptance as a highly sensitive monitoring tool for detecting occurrence of such events. This is evident from the fact that customized commercial equipment are available (popularly called FRA or SFRA instruments), and with recent introduction of an IEEE draft trial-use guide for application and interpretation of frequency response analysis. Once a damage is detected, the next task is to identify its location along the winding and, if possible, determine its extent of severity. Understandably, these two tasks are best achieved, without disassembling the transformer and should ideally be based on off-line and on-site terminal measurements. In this regard, literature analysis reveals that recent research efforts have successfully demonstrated possibilities of using frequency response data for localization of discrete change in windings. This is indeed noteworthy, in spite of one major drawback. This pertains to excessive computing time needed to synthesize large-sized ladder-network, which automatically limits its practical use. Keeping these issues in mind, a research was initiated to find alternatives. The primary objective of this thesis is to examine the use of- • Complexnetwork-function-lociforlocalizationofadiscretechangeinasingle,isolatedtransformerwinding,basedonterminalmeasurements It goes without saying that the proposed method should be non-invasive, simple, time-efficient and overcome drawbacks in the earlier approach. A brief summary of the proposed method follows- This thesis presents a different approach to tackle the problem of localization of winding deformation in a transformer. Within the context of this thesis, winding deformation means, a discrete and specific change imposed at a particular position on the winding. The proposed method is based on the principle of pre-computing and plotting the complex network-function-loci (e.g. driving-point-impedance) at a selected frequency, for a meaningful range of values for each element (increasing and decreasing) of the ladder network. This loci diagram is called the nomogram. After introducing a discrete change (to simulate a deformation), the driving-point-impedance (amplitude and phase) is measured again .By plotting this single measurement on the nomogram, it is straightforward to estimate the location and identify the extent of change. In contrast to the earlier approach (wherein the entire ladder-network had to be synthesized for every new measurement), the proposed method overcomes the drawbacks, is non-iterative and yields reasonably accurate localization. Experimental results on a model coil and two actual transformer windings (continuous-disc and interleaved-disc) were encouraging and demonstrate its potential. Further details are presented in the thesis.