A Unified, Configurable, Non-Iterative Guidance System For Launch Vehicles
A satellite launch vehicle not subjected to any perturbations, external or internal, could be guided along a trajectory by following a stored, pre-computed steering program. In practice, perturbations do occur, and in order to take account of them and to achieve an accurate injection, a closed loop guidance system is required. Guidance algorithm is developed by solving the optimal control problem. Closed form solution is difficult because the necessary conditions are in the form of Two Point Boundary Value Problems (TBVP) or Multi Point Boundary Value Problems (MPBVP). Development of non-iterative guidance algorithm is taken as a prime objective of this thesis to ensure reliable on-board implementation. If non-iterative algorithms are required, the usual practice is to approximate the system equations to derive closed form solutions. In the present work, approximations cannot be used because the algorithm has to cater to a wide variety of vehicles and missions. Present development adopts an alternate approach by splitting the reconfigurable algorithm development in to smaller sub-problems such that each sub-problem has closed form solution. The splitting is done in such a way that the solution of the sub-problems can be used as building blocks to construct the final solution. By adding or removing the building blocks, the algorithm can be configured to suit specific requirements. Chapter 1 discusses the motivation and objectives of the thesis and gives a literature survey. In chapter 2, Classical Flat Earth (CFE) guidance algorithm is discussed. The assumptions and the nature of solution are closely analyzed because CFE guidance is used as the baseline for further developments. New contribution in chapter 2 is the extension of CFE guidance for a generalized propulsion system in which liquid and solid engines are present. In chapter 3, CFE guidance is applied for a mission with large pitch steering angles. The result shows loss of optimality and performance. An algorithm based on regular perturbation is developed to compensate for the small angle approximation. The new contribution in chapter 3 is the development of Regular Perturbation based FE (RPFE) guidance as an extension of CFE guidance. RPFE guidance can be configured as CFE guidance and FEGP. Algorithms presented up to chapter 3 are developed to inject a satellite in to orbits with unspecified inertial orientation. Communication satellite missions demand injection in to an orbit with a specific inertial orientation defined by argument of perigee. This problem is formulated using Calculus of Variations in chapter 4. A non-iterative closed form solution (Predicted target Flat Earth or PFE guidance) is derived for this problem. In chapter 5, PFE guidance is extended to a multi-stage vehicle with a constraint on the impact point of spent lower stage. Since the problem is not analytically solvable, the original problem is split in to three sub-problems and solved. Chapter 6 has two parts. First part gives theoretical analysis of the sub-optimal strategies with special emphasis to guidance. Behavior of predicted terminal error and control commands in presence of plant approximations are theoretically analyzed for a class of optimal control problems and the results are presented as six theorems. Chapter 7 presents the conclusions and future works.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Kumar, Shashi Ranjan (2018-07-23)In the guidance literature, minimizing miss distance along with optimizing the energy usage had been an objective for several decades. In current day applications, additional terminal performance such as impact angle and ...
Abdul Saleem, P K (2017-12-16)Autonomous aerial vehicles like missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have attracted various military and civilian applications. The primary guidance objective of any autonomous vehicle is to reach the desired ...
Dhabale, Ashwin (2018-06-05)In this thesis the cubic spline guidance law and its variants are derived. A detailed analysis is carried out to find the initial conditions for successful interception. The results are applied to three dimensional ...