Computer Science and Automation (CSA)
http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/17
2019-07-21T04:09:57ZAccess Path Based Dataflow Analysis For Sequential And Concurrent Programs
http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2564
Access Path Based Dataflow Analysis For Sequential And Concurrent Programs
Arnab De, *
In this thesis, we have developed a flow-sensitive data flow analysis framework for value set analyses for Java-like languages. Our analysis frame work is based on access paths—a variable followed by zero or more field accesses. We express our abstract states as maps from bounded access paths to abstract value sets. Using access paths instead of allocation sites enables us to perform strong updates on assignments to dynamically allocated memory locations. We also describe several optimizations to reduce the number of access paths that need to be tracked in our analysis. We have instantiated this frame work for flow-sensitive pointer and null-pointer analysis for Java. We have implemented our analysis inside the Chord frame work. A major part of our implementation is written declaratively using Datalog. We leverage the use of BDDs in Chord for keeping our memory usage low. We show that our analysis is much more precise and faster than traditional flow-sensitive and flow-insensitive pointer and null-pointer analysis for Java.
We further extend our access path based analysis frame work to concurrent Java programs. We use the synchronization structure of the programs to transfer abstract states from one thread to another. Therefore, we do not need to make conservative assumptions about reads or writes to shared memory. We prove our analysis to be sound for the happens-before memory model, which is weaker than most common memory models, including sequential consistency and the Java Memory Model. We implement a null-pointer analysis for concurrent Java programs and show it to be more precise than the traditional analysis.
2016-09-14T00:00:00ZACE-Model: A Conceptual Evolutionary Model For Evolutionary Computation And Artificial Life
http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/3920
ACE-Model: A Conceptual Evolutionary Model For Evolutionary Computation And Artificial Life
Dukkipati, Ambedkar
Darwinian Evolutionary system - a system satisfying the abstract conditions: reproduction with heritable variation, in a finite world, giving rise to Natural Selection encompasses a complex and subtle system of interrelated theories, whose substantive transplantation to any artificial medium let it be mathematical model or computational model - will be very far from easy. There are two motives in bringing Darwinian evolution into computational frameworks: one to understand the Darwinian evolution, and the other is to view Darwinian evolution - that carries out controlled adaptive-stochastic search in the space of all possible DNA-sequences for emergence and improvement of the living beings on our planet - as an optimization process, which can be simulated in appropriate frameworks to solve some intractable problems. The first motive led to emerging field of study commonly referred to as Artificial Life, and other gave way to emergence of Evolutionary Computation, which is speculated to be the only practical path to the development of ontogenetic machine intelligence. In this thesis we touch upon all the above aspects.
Natural selection is the central concept of Darwinian evolution and hence capturing natural selection in computational frameworks which maintains the spirit of Darwinian evolution in the sense of conventional, terrestrial and biological perspectives is essential. Naive models of evolution define natural selection as a process which brings in differential reproductive capabilities in organisms of a population, and hence, most of the evolutionary simulations in Artificial Life and Evolutionary Computation implement selection by differential reproduction: the Attest members of the population are reproduced preferentially at the expense of the less fit members of the population. Formal models in evolutionary biology often subdivide selection into components called 'episodes of selection' to capture the different complex mechanisms of nature by which Darwinian evolution can occur. In this thesis we introduce the concept of 'episodes of selection' into computational frameworks of Darwinian evolution by means of A Conceptual Evolutionary model (ACE-model). ACE-model is proposed to be simple and yet it captures the essential features of modern evolutionary perspectives in evolutionary computation framework.
ACE-model is rich enough to offer abstract and structural framework for evolutionary computation and can serve as a basic model for evolutionary algorithms. It captures selection in two episodes in two phases of evolutionary cycle and it offers various parameters by which evolutionary algorithms can control selection mechanisms. In this thesis we propose two evolutionary algorithms namely Malthus evolutionary algorithms and Malthus Spencer evolutionary algorithms based on the ACE-model and we discuss the relevance of parameters offered by ACE-model by simulation studies.
As an application of ACE-model to artificial life we study misconceptions involved in defining fitness in evolutionary biology, and we also discuss the importance of introducing fitness landscape in the theories of Darwinian evolution.
Another important and independent contribution of this thesis is: A Mathematical Abstraction of Evolutionary process. Evolutionary process is characterized by Evolutionary Criteria and Evolutionary Mechanism which are formalized by classical mathematical tools. Even though the model is in its premature stage to develop any theory based on it, we develop convergence criteria of evolutionary process based on this model.
2005-02-07T09:44:59ZAcyclic Edge Coloring Of Graphs
http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2263
Acyclic Edge Coloring Of Graphs
Basavaraju, Manu
A proper edge coloring of G =(V,E)is a map c : E → C (where C is the set of available colors ) with c(e) ≠ c(ƒ) for any adjacent edges e,f. The minimum number of colors needed to properly color the edges of G, is called the chromatic index of Gand is denoted by χ(G).
A proper edge coloring c is called acyclic if there are no bichromatic cycles in the graph. In other words an edge coloring is acyclic if the union of any two color classes induces a set of paths (i.e., linear forest) in G. The acyclic edge chromatic number (also called acyclic chromatic index), denoted by a’(G), is the minimum number of colors required to acyclically edge color G.
The primary motivation for this thesis is the following conjecture by Alon, Sudakov and Zaks [7] (and independently by Fiamcik [22]): Acyclic Edge Coloring Conjecture: For any graph G, a’ (G) ≤ Δ(G)+2.
The following are the main results of the thesis:
1 From a result of Burnstein [16], it follows that any subcubic graph can be acyclically edge colored using at most 5 colors. Skulrattankulchai [38] gave a polynomial time algorithm to color a subcubic graph using Δ + 2 = 5 colors. We proved that any non-regular subcubic graph can be acyclically colored using only 4 colors. This result is tight. This also implies that the fifth color, when needed is required only for one edge.
2 Let G be a connected graph on n vertices, m ≤ 2n - 1 edges and maximum degree Δ ≤ 4, then a’ (G) ≤ 6. This implies that graph of maximum degree 4 are acyclically edge colorable using at most 7 colors.
3 The earliest result on acyclic edge coloring of 2-degenerate graphs was by Caro and Roditty [17], where they proved that a’ (G) ≤ Δ + k - 1, where k is the maximum edge connectivity, defined as k = maxu,vε V(G)λ(u,v), where λ(u,v)is the edge-connectivity of the pair u,v. Note that here k can be as high as Δ. Muthu,Narayanan and Subramanian [34] proved that a’ (G) ≤ Δ + 1for outerplanar graphs which are a subclass of 2-degenerate graphs and posed the problem of proving the conjecture for 2-degenerate graphs as an open problem. In fact they have also derived an upper bound of Δ+1 for series-parallel graphs [35], which is a slightly bigger subclass of 2-degenerate graphs. We proved that 2-degenerate graphs are Δ+1colorable.
1 Fiedorowicz, Hauszczak and Narayanan [24] gave an upper bound of 2Δ+29 for planar graphs. Independently Hou, Wu, GuiZhen Liu and Bin Liu [29] gave an upper bound of max(2Δ - 2,Δ+ 22). We improve this upper bound to Δ+12, which is the best known bound at present.
2 Fiedorowicz, Hauszczak and Narayanan [24] gave an upper bound of Δ+6for triangle free planar graphs. We improve the bound to Δ+3, which is the best known bound at present.
3 We have also worked on lower bounds. Alon et.al. [7], along with the acyclic edge coloring conjecture, also made an auxiliary conjecture stating that Complete graphs of 2n vertices are the only class of regular graphs which require Δ+2colors. We disproved this conjecture by showing infinite classes of regular graphs other than Complete Graphs which require Δ+2colors.
Apart from the above mentioned results, this thesis also contributes to the acyclic edge coloring literature by introducing new techniques like Recoloring, Color Exchange (exchanging colors of adjacent edges), circular shifting of colors on adjacent edges (derangement of colors). These techniques turn out to be very useful in proving upper bounds on the acyclic edge chromatic number.
2013-10-07T00:00:00ZAdaptive Hierarchial RAID
http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/3926
Adaptive Hierarchial RAID
Muppalaneni, Nitin
Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks or RAID is a popular method of improving the reliability and performance of disk storage. Of various levels of RAID, mirrored or RAID1 and rotating parity or RAID5 configurations have become moat popular. Mirrored or RAID1 provides best overall performance and is easier to configure, but has 100 percent storage overhead for the redundancy. Rotating parity or RAID5, on the other hand, is quite inexpensive for the redundancy it provides, shorn impressive performance for reads and full-stripe writes in normal mode, but the small write performance is poor due to the read-modify-write cycle involved. The performance drops drastically when one of the disks fails and the system enters degraded mode. Also RAID5 is relatively difficult to configure.
Typical non-scientific system disk access patterns exhibit very high locality of reference. This thesis presents the design and implementation of an Adaptive Hierarchical RAID array to exploit this high locality. Frequently accessed data is migrated towards the top of the hierarchy and not so frequently acee88ed data is moved down the hierarchy, thus adaptively rearranging itself to the access patterns.
Previous work on Adaptive Hierarchical RAID such as HP AutoRAID has explored one part of the design space, namely design of configurable storage at the SGSI level with no interaction with higher level layers like volume manager. This thesis explores a different design point: namely, one that is centered at the volume manager layer. This is important also for the reason that with fibre channel disks and SCSI-3, Storage Area Networks (SAN) no longer need a conventional controller but a modified version of a controller that is more close to a volume manager.
2005-02-08T09:35:50Z